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prj.c

/*============================================================================

  WCSLIB 4.8 - an implementation of the FITS WCS standard.
  Copyright (C) 1995-2011, Mark Calabretta

  This file is part of WCSLIB.

  WCSLIB is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
  terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free
  Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option)
  any later version.

  WCSLIB is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
  WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
  FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Lesser General Public License for
  more details.

  You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
  along with WCSLIB.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

  Correspondence concerning WCSLIB may be directed to:
    Internet email: mcalabre@atnf.csiro.au
    Postal address: Dr. Mark Calabretta
                    Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO
                    PO Box 76
                    Epping NSW 1710
                    AUSTRALIA

  Author: Mark Calabretta, Australia Telescope National Facility
  http://www.atnf.csiro.au/~mcalabre/index.html
  $Id: prj.c,v 4.8.1.1 2011/08/15 08:07:06 cal103 Exp cal103 $
*===========================================================================*/

#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

#include "wcserr.h"
#include "wcsmath.h"
#include "wcsprintf.h"
#include "wcstrig.h"
#include "wcsutil.h"
#include "prj.h"


/* Projection categories. */
const int ZENITHAL          = 1;
const int CYLINDRICAL       = 2;
const int PSEUDOCYLINDRICAL = 3;
const int CONVENTIONAL      = 4;
const int CONIC             = 5;
const int POLYCONIC         = 6;
const int QUADCUBE          = 7;
const int HEALPIX           = 8;

const char prj_categories[9][32] =
  {"undefined", "zenithal", "cylindrical", "pseudocylindrical",
  "conventional", "conic", "polyconic", "quadcube", "HEALPix"};


/* Projection codes. */
const int  prj_ncode = 27;
const char prj_codes[27][4] =
  {"AZP", "SZP", "TAN", "STG", "SIN", "ARC", "ZPN", "ZEA", "AIR", "CYP",
   "CEA", "CAR", "MER", "COP", "COE", "COD", "COO", "SFL", "PAR", "MOL",
   "AIT", "BON", "PCO", "TSC", "CSC", "QSC", "HPX"};

const int AZP = 101;
const int SZP = 102;
const int TAN = 103;
const int STG = 104;
const int SIN = 105;
const int ARC = 106;
const int ZPN = 107;
const int ZEA = 108;
const int AIR = 109;
const int CYP = 201;
const int CEA = 202;
const int CAR = 203;
const int MER = 204;
const int SFL = 301;
const int PAR = 302;
const int MOL = 303;
const int AIT = 401;
const int COP = 501;
const int COE = 502;
const int COD = 503;
const int COO = 504;
const int BON = 601;
const int PCO = 602;
const int TSC = 701;
const int CSC = 702;
const int QSC = 703;
const int HPX = 801;


/* Map status return value to message. */
const char *prj_errmsg[] = {
  "Success",
  "Null prjprm pointer passed",
  "Invalid projection parameters",
  "One or more of the (x,y) coordinates were invalid",
  "One or more of the (phi,theta) coordinates were invalid"};

/* Convenience macros for generating common error messages. */
#define PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET(function) \
  wcserr_set(&(prj->err), PRJERR_BAD_PARAM, function, __FILE__, __LINE__, \
    "Invalid parameters for %s projection", prj->name);

#define PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET(function) \
  wcserr_set(&(prj->err), PRJERR_BAD_PIX, function, __FILE__, __LINE__, \
    "One or more of the (x, y) coordinates were invalid for %s projection", \
    prj->name);

#define PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET(function) \
  wcserr_set(&(prj->err), PRJERR_BAD_WORLD, function, __FILE__, __LINE__, \
    "One or more of the (lat, lng) coordinates were invalid for " \
    "%s projection", prj->name);

#define copysign(X, Y) ((Y) < 0.0 ? -fabs(X) : fabs(X))


/*============================================================================
* Generic routines.
*
* prjini initializes a prjprm struct to default values.
*
* prjprt prints the contents of a prjprm struct.
*
* prjset invokes the specific initialization routine based on the projection
*        code in the prjprm struct.
*
* prjx2s invokes the specific deprojection routine based on the pointer-to-
*        function stored in the prjprm struct.
*
* prjs2x invokes the specific projection routine based on the pointer-to-
*        function stored in the prjprm struct.
*
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int prjini(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  register int k;

  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = 0;

  strcpy(prj->code, "   ");
  prj->pv[0]  = 0.0;
  prj->pv[1]  = UNDEFINED;
  prj->pv[2]  = UNDEFINED;
  prj->pv[3]  = UNDEFINED;
  for (k = 4; k < PVN; prj->pv[k++] = 0.0);
  prj->r0     = 0.0;
  prj->phi0   = UNDEFINED;
  prj->theta0 = UNDEFINED;
  prj->bounds = 1;

  strcpy(prj->name, "undefined");
  for (k = 9; k < 40; prj->name[k++] = '\0');
  prj->category  = 0;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = 0;
  prj->x0 = 0.0;
  prj->y0 = 0.0;
  for (k = 0; k < 10; prj->w[k++] = 0.0);
  prj->m = 0;
  prj->n = 0;

  prj->err = 0x0;

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int prjfree(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  if (prj->err) free(prj->err);
  prj->err = 0x0;

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int prjprt(prj)

const struct prjprm *prj;

{
  char hext[32];
  int  i, n;

  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  wcsprintf("       flag: %d\n",  prj->flag);
  wcsprintf("       code: \"%s\"\n",  prj->code);
  wcsprintf("         r0: %9f\n", prj->r0);
  wcsprintf("         pv:");
  if (prj->pvrange) {
    n = (prj->pvrange)%100;

    if (prj->pvrange/100) {
      wcsprintf(" (0)");
    } else {
      wcsprintf(" %- 11.5g", prj->pv[0]);
      n--;
    }

    for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
      if (i%5 == 1) {
        wcsprintf("\n           ");
      }

      if (undefined(prj->pv[i])) {
        wcsprintf("  UNDEFINED   ");
      } else {
        wcsprintf("  %- 11.5g", prj->pv[i]);
      }
    }
    wcsprintf("\n");
  } else {
    wcsprintf(" (not used)\n");
  }
  if (undefined(prj->phi0)) {
    wcsprintf("       phi0: UNDEFINED\n");
  } else {
    wcsprintf("       phi0: %9f\n", prj->phi0);
  }
  if (undefined(prj->theta0)) {
    wcsprintf("     theta0: UNDEFINED\n");
  } else {
    wcsprintf("     theta0: %9f\n", prj->theta0);
  }
  wcsprintf("     bounds: %d\n",  prj->bounds);

  wcsprintf("\n");
  wcsprintf("       name: \"%s\"\n", prj->name);
  wcsprintf("   category: %d (%s)\n", prj->category,
                                      prj_categories[prj->category]);
  wcsprintf("    pvrange: %d\n", prj->pvrange);
  wcsprintf("  simplezen: %d\n", prj->simplezen);
  wcsprintf("  equiareal: %d\n", prj->equiareal);
  wcsprintf("  conformal: %d\n", prj->conformal);
  wcsprintf("     global: %d\n", prj->global);
  wcsprintf("  divergent: %d\n", prj->divergent);
  wcsprintf("         x0: %f\n", prj->x0);
  wcsprintf("         y0: %f\n", prj->y0);

  WCSPRINTF_PTR("        err: ", prj->err, "\n");
  if (prj->err) {
    wcserr_prt(prj->err, "");
  }

  wcsprintf("        w[]:");
  for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
    wcsprintf("  %- 11.5g", prj->w[i]);
  }
  wcsprintf("\n            ");
  for (i = 5; i < 10; i++) {
    wcsprintf("  %- 11.5g", prj->w[i]);
  }
  wcsprintf("\n");
  wcsprintf("          m: %d\n", prj->m);
  wcsprintf("          n: %d\n", prj->n);
  wcsprintf("     prjx2s: %s\n",
    wcsutil_fptr2str((int (*)())prj->prjx2s, hext));
  wcsprintf("     prjs2x: %s\n",
    wcsutil_fptr2str((int (*)())prj->prjs2x, hext));

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int prjset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  static const char *function = "prjset";

  int status;
  struct wcserr **err;

  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  err = &(prj->err);

  /* Invoke the relevant initialization routine. */
  prj->code[3] = '\0';
  if (strcmp(prj->code, "AZP") == 0) {
    status = azpset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "SZP") == 0) {
    status = szpset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "TAN") == 0) {
    status = tanset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "STG") == 0) {
    status = stgset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "SIN") == 0) {
    status = sinset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "ARC") == 0) {
    status = arcset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "ZPN") == 0) {
    status = zpnset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "ZEA") == 0) {
    status = zeaset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "AIR") == 0) {
    status = airset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "CYP") == 0) {
    status = cypset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "CEA") == 0) {
    status = ceaset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "CAR") == 0) {
    status = carset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "MER") == 0) {
    status = merset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "SFL") == 0) {
    status = sflset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "PAR") == 0) {
    status = parset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "MOL") == 0) {
    status = molset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "AIT") == 0) {
    status = aitset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "COP") == 0) {
    status = copset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "COE") == 0) {
    status = coeset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "COD") == 0) {
    status = codset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "COO") == 0) {
    status = cooset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "BON") == 0) {
    status = bonset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "PCO") == 0) {
    status = pcoset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "TSC") == 0) {
    status = tscset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "CSC") == 0) {
    status = cscset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "QSC") == 0) {
    status = qscset(prj);
  } else if (strcmp(prj->code, "HPX") == 0) {
    status = hpxset(prj);
  } else {
    /* Unrecognized projection code. */
    status = wcserr_set(WCSERR_SET(PRJERR_BAD_PARAM),
               "Unrecognized projection code '%s'", prj->code);
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int prjx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int status;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag == 0) {
    if ((status = prjset(prj))) return status;
  }

  return prj->prjx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int prjs2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int status;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag == 0) {
    if ((status = prjset(prj))) return status;
  }

  return prj->prjs2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat);
}

/*============================================================================
* Internal helper routine used by the *set() routines that forces
* (x,y) = (0,0) at (phi0,theta0).
*---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int prjoff(prj, phi0, theta0)

struct prjprm *prj;
const double phi0, theta0;

{
  int    stat;
  double x0, y0;

  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->x0 = 0.0;
  prj->y0 = 0.0;

  if (undefined(prj->phi0) || undefined(prj->theta0)) {
    /* Set both to the projection-specific default if either undefined. */
    prj->phi0   = phi0;
    prj->theta0 = theta0;

  } else {
    if (prj->prjs2x(prj, 1, 1, 1, 1, &(prj->phi0), &(prj->theta0), &x0, &y0,
                    &stat)) {
      return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("prjoff");
    }

    prj->x0 = x0;
    prj->y0 = y0;
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   AZP: zenithal/azimuthal perspective projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   Distance parameter, mu in units of r0.
*      prj->pv[2]   Tilt angle, gamma in degrees.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to  0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 90.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     AZP
*      prj->code    "AZP"
*      prj->x0      Offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(mu+1)
*      prj->w[1]    tan(gamma)
*      prj->w[2]    sec(gamma)
*      prj->w[3]    cos(gamma)
*      prj->w[4]    sin(gamma)
*      prj->w[5]    asin(-1/mu) for |mu| >= 1, -90 otherwise
*      prj->w[6]    mu*cos(gamma)
*      prj->w[7]    1 if |mu*cos(gamma)| < 1, 0 otherwise
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to azpx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to azps2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int azpset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = AZP;
  strcpy(prj->code, "AZP");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) prj->pv[1] = 0.0;
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] = 0.0;
  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  strcpy(prj->name, "zenithal/azimuthal perspective");
  prj->category  = ZENITHAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 102;
  prj->simplezen = prj->pv[2] == 0.0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = prj->pv[1] <= 1.0;

  prj->w[0] = prj->r0*(prj->pv[1] + 1.0);
  if (prj->w[0] == 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("azpset");
  }

  prj->w[3] = cosd(prj->pv[2]);
  if (prj->w[3] == 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("azpset");
  }

  prj->w[2] = 1.0/prj->w[3];
  prj->w[4] = sind(prj->pv[2]);
  prj->w[1] = prj->w[4] / prj->w[3];

  if (fabs(prj->pv[1]) > 1.0) {
    prj->w[5] = asind(-1.0/prj->pv[1]);
  } else {
    prj->w[5] = -90.0;
  }

  prj->w[6] = prj->pv[1] * prj->w[3];
  prj->w[7] = (fabs(prj->w[6]) < 1.0) ? 1.0 : 0.0;

  prj->prjx2s = azpx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = azps2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 90.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int azpx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double a, b, q, r, s, t, xj, yj, yc, yc2;
  const double tol = 1.0e-13;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != AZP) {
    if ((status = azpset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj = *yp + prj->y0;

    yc  = yj*prj->w[3];
    yc2 = yc*yc;

    q = prj->w[0] + yj*prj->w[4];

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + yc2);
      if (r == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
        *thetap = 90.0;
        *(statp++) = 0;

      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(xj, -yc);

        s = r / q;
        t = s*prj->pv[1]/sqrt(s*s + 1.0);

        s = atan2d(1.0, s);

        if (fabs(t) > 1.0) {
          if (fabs(t) > 1.0+tol) {
            *thetap = 0.0;
            *(statp++) = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("azpx2s");
            continue;
          }
          t = copysign(90.0, t);
        } else {
          t = asind(t);
        }

        a = s - t;
        b = s + t + 180.0;

        if (a > 90.0) a -= 360.0;
        if (b > 90.0) b -= 360.0;

        *thetap = (a > b) ? a : b;
        *(statp++) = 0;
      }
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int azps2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double a, b, cosphi, costhe, r, s, sinphi, sinthe, t;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != AZP) {
    if ((status = azpset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    sincosd(*thetap, &sinthe, &costhe);

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      s = prj->w[1]*(*yp);
      t = (prj->pv[1] + sinthe) + costhe*s;

      if (t == 0.0) {
        *xp = 0.0;
        *yp = 0.0;
        *(statp++) = 1;
        if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("azps2x");

      } else {
        r = prj->w[0]*costhe/t;

        /* Bounds checking. */
        istat = 0;
        if (prj->bounds) {
          if (*thetap < prj->w[5]) {
            /* Overlap. */
            istat  = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("azps2x");

          } else if (prj->w[7] > 0.0) {
            /* Divergence. */
            t = prj->pv[1] / sqrt(1.0 + s*s);

            if (fabs(t) <= 1.0) {
              s = atand(-s);
              t = asind(t);
              a = s - t;
              b = s + t + 180.0;

              if (a > 90.0) a -= 360.0;
              if (b > 90.0) b -= 360.0;

              if (*thetap < ((a > b) ? a : b)) {
                istat  = 1;
                if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("azps2x");
              }
            }
          }
        }

        *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
        *yp = -r*(*yp)*prj->w[2] - prj->y0;
        *(statp++) = istat;
      }
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   SZP: slant zenithal perspective projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   Distance of the point of projection from the centre of the
*                   generating sphere, mu in units of r0.
*      prj->pv[2]   Native longitude, phi_c, and ...
*      prj->pv[3]   Native latitude, theta_c, on the planewards side of the
*                   intersection of the line through the point of projection
*                   and the centre of the generating sphere, phi_c in degrees.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to  0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 90.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     SZP
*      prj->code    "SZP"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    1/r0
*      prj->w[1]    xp = -mu*cos(theta_c)*sin(phi_c)
*      prj->w[2]    yp =  mu*cos(theta_c)*cos(phi_c)
*      prj->w[3]    zp =  mu*sin(theta_c) + 1
*      prj->w[4]    r0*xp
*      prj->w[5]    r0*yp
*      prj->w[6]    r0*zp
*      prj->w[7]    (zp - 1)^2
*      prj->w[8]    asin(1-zp) if |1 - zp| < 1, -90 otherwise
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to szpx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to szps2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int szpset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = SZP;
  strcpy(prj->code, "SZP");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) prj->pv[1] =  0.0;
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] =  0.0;
  if (undefined(prj->pv[3])) prj->pv[3] = 90.0;
  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  strcpy(prj->name, "slant zenithal perspective");
  prj->category  = ZENITHAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 103;
  prj->simplezen = prj->pv[3] == 90.0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = prj->pv[1] <= 1.0;

  prj->w[0] = 1.0/prj->r0;

  prj->w[3] = prj->pv[1] * sind(prj->pv[3]) + 1.0;
  if (prj->w[3] == 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("szpset");
  }

  prj->w[1] = -prj->pv[1] * cosd(prj->pv[3]) * sind(prj->pv[2]);
  prj->w[2] =  prj->pv[1] * cosd(prj->pv[3]) * cosd(prj->pv[2]);
  prj->w[4] =  prj->r0 * prj->w[1];
  prj->w[5] =  prj->r0 * prj->w[2];
  prj->w[6] =  prj->r0 * prj->w[3];
  prj->w[7] =  (prj->w[3] - 1.0) * prj->w[3] - 1.0;

  if (fabs(prj->w[3] - 1.0) < 1.0) {
    prj->w[8] = asind(1.0 - prj->w[3]);
  } else {
    prj->w[8] = -90.0;
  }

  prj->prjx2s = szpx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = szps2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 90.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int szpx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double a, b, c, d, r2, sinth1, sinth2, sinthe, t, x1, xr, xy, y1, yr, z;
  const double tol = 1.0e-13;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != SZP) {
    if ((status = szpset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xr = (*xp + prj->x0)*prj->w[0];

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xr;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yr = (*yp + prj->y0)*prj->w[0];

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xr = *phip;
      r2 = xr*xr + yr*yr;

      x1 = (xr - prj->w[1])/prj->w[3];
      y1 = (yr - prj->w[2])/prj->w[3];
      xy = xr*x1 + yr*y1;

      if (r2 < 1.0e-10) {
        /* Use small angle formula. */
        z = r2/2.0;
        *thetap = 90.0 - R2D*sqrt(r2/(1.0 + xy));

      } else {
        t = x1*x1 + y1*y1;
        a = t + 1.0;
        b = xy - t;
        c = r2 - xy - xy + t - 1.0;
        d = b*b - a*c;

        /* Check for a solution. */
        if (d < 0.0) {
          *phip = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("szpx2s");
          continue;
        }
        d = sqrt(d);

        /* Choose solution closest to pole. */
        sinth1 = (-b + d)/a;
        sinth2 = (-b - d)/a;
        sinthe = (sinth1 > sinth2) ? sinth1 : sinth2;
        if (sinthe > 1.0) {
          if (sinthe-1.0 < tol) {
            sinthe = 1.0;
          } else {
            sinthe = (sinth1 < sinth2) ? sinth1 : sinth2;
          }
        }

        if (sinthe < -1.0) {
          if (sinthe+1.0 > -tol) {
            sinthe = -1.0;
          }
        }

        if (sinthe > 1.0 || sinthe < -1.0) {
          *phip   = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("szpx2s");
          continue;
        }

        *thetap = asind(sinthe);

        z = 1.0 - sinthe;
      }

      *phip = atan2d(xr - x1*z, -(yr - y1*z));
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int szps2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double a, b, cosphi, r, s, sinphi, t, u, v;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != SZP) {
    if ((status = szpset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    s = 1.0 - sind(*thetap);
    t = prj->w[3] - s;

    if (t == 0.0) {
      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        *xp = 0.0;
        *yp = 0.0;
        *(statp++) = 1;
      }

      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("szps2x");

    } else {
      r = prj->w[6]*cosd(*thetap)/t;
      u = prj->w[4]*s/t + prj->x0;
      v = prj->w[5]*s/t + prj->y0;

      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        /* Bounds checking. */
        istat = 0;
        if (prj->bounds) {
          if (*thetap < prj->w[8]) {
            /* Divergence. */
            istat  = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("szps2x");

          } else if (fabs(prj->pv[1]) > 1.0) {
            /* Overlap. */
            s = prj->w[1]*(*xp) - prj->w[2]*(*yp);
            t = 1.0/sqrt(prj->w[7] + s*s);

            if (fabs(t) <= 1.0) {
              s = atan2d(s, prj->w[3] - 1.0);
              t = asind(t);
              a = s - t;
              b = s + t + 180.0;

              if (a > 90.0) a -= 360.0;
              if (b > 90.0) b -= 360.0;

              if (*thetap < ((a > b) ? a : b)) {
                istat  = 1;
                if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("szps2x");
              }
            }
          }
        }

        *xp =  r*(*xp) - u;
        *yp = -r*(*yp) - v;
        *(statp++) = istat;
      }
    }
  }

  return status;
}


/*============================================================================
*   TAN: gnomonic projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to  0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 90.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     TAN
*      prj->code    "TAN"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to tanx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to tans2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int tanset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = TAN;
  strcpy(prj->code, "TAN");

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  strcpy(prj->name, "gnomonic");
  prj->category  = ZENITHAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 1;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = 1;

  prj->prjx2s = tanx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = tans2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 90.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int tanx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double r, xj, yj, yj2;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != TAN) {
    if ((status = tanset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj  = *yp + prj->y0;
    yj2 = yj*yj;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + yj2);
      if (r == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(xj, -yj);
      }

      *thetap = atan2d(prj->r0, r);
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int tans2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, r, s, sinphi;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != TAN) {
    if ((status = tanset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    s = sind(*thetap);
    if (s == 0.0) {
      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        *xp = 0.0;
        *yp = 0.0;
        *(statp++) = 1;
      }
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("tans2x");

    } else {
      r =  prj->r0*cosd(*thetap)/s;

      istat = 0;
      if (prj->bounds && s < 0.0) {
        istat  = 1;
        if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("tans2x");
      }

      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
        *yp = -r*(*yp) - prj->y0;
        *(statp++) = istat;
      }
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   STG: stereographic projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to  0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 90.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     STG
*      prj->code    "STG"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    2*r0
*      prj->w[1]    1/(2*r0)
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to stgx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to stgs2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int stgset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = STG;
  strcpy(prj->code, "STG");

  strcpy(prj->name, "stereographic");
  prj->category  = ZENITHAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 1;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 1;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = 1;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 360.0/PI;
    prj->w[1] = PI/360.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = 2.0*prj->r0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = stgx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = stgs2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 90.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int stgx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double r, xj, yj, yj2;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != STG) {
    if ((status = stgset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj  = *yp + prj->y0;
    yj2 = yj*yj;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj  = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + yj2);
      if (r == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(xj, -yj);
      }

      *thetap = 90.0 - 2.0*atand(r*prj->w[1]);
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int stgs2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, r, s, sinphi;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != STG) {
    if ((status = stgset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    s = 1.0 + sind(*thetap);
    if (s == 0.0) {
      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        *xp = 0.0;
        *yp = 0.0;
        *(statp++) = 1;
      }
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("stgs2x");

    } else {
      r = prj->w[0]*cosd(*thetap)/s;

      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
        *yp = -r*(*yp) - prj->y0;
        *(statp++) = 0;
      }
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   SIN: orthographic/synthesis projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1:2] Obliqueness parameters, xi and eta.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to  0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 90.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     SIN
*      prj->code    "SIN"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    1/r0
*      prj->w[1]    xi**2 + eta**2
*      prj->w[2]    xi**2 + eta**2 + 1
*      prj->w[3]    xi**2 + eta**2 - 1
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to sinx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to sins2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int sinset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = SIN;
  strcpy(prj->code, "SIN");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) prj->pv[1] = 0.0;
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] = 0.0;
  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  strcpy(prj->name, "orthographic/synthesis");
  prj->category  = ZENITHAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 102;
  prj->simplezen = (prj->pv[1] == 0.0 && prj->pv[2] == 0.0);
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  prj->w[0] = 1.0/prj->r0;
  prj->w[1] = prj->pv[1]*prj->pv[1] + prj->pv[2]*prj->pv[2];
  prj->w[2] = prj->w[1] + 1.0;
  prj->w[3] = prj->w[1] - 1.0;

  prj->prjx2s = sinx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = sins2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 90.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int sinx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  const double tol = 1.0e-13;
  double a, b, c, d, eta, r2, sinth1, sinth2, sinthe, x0, xi, x1, xy, y0, y02,
         y1, z;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != SIN) {
    if ((status = sinset(prj))) return status;
  }

  xi  = prj->pv[1];
  eta = prj->pv[2];

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    x0 = (*xp + prj->x0)*prj->w[0];

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = x0;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    y0 = (*yp + prj->y0)*prj->w[0];
    y02 = y0*y0;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      /* Compute intermediaries. */
      x0 = *phip;
      r2 = x0*x0 + y02;

      if (prj->w[1] == 0.0) {
        /* Orthographic projection. */
        if (r2 != 0.0) {
          *phip = atan2d(x0, -y0);
        } else {
          *phip = 0.0;
        }

        if (r2 < 0.5) {
          *thetap = acosd(sqrt(r2));
        } else if (r2 <= 1.0) {
          *thetap = asind(sqrt(1.0 - r2));
        } else {
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("sinx2s")
          continue;
        }

      } else {
        /* "Synthesis" projection. */
        xy = x0*xi + y0*eta;

        if (r2 < 1.0e-10) {
          /* Use small angle formula. */
          z = r2/2.0;
          *thetap = 90.0 - R2D*sqrt(r2/(1.0 + xy));

        } else {
          a = prj->w[2];
          b = xy - prj->w[1];
          c = r2 - xy - xy + prj->w[3];
          d = b*b - a*c;

          /* Check for a solution. */
          if (d < 0.0) {
            *phip = 0.0;
            *thetap = 0.0;
            *(statp++) = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("sinx2s")
            continue;
          }
          d = sqrt(d);

          /* Choose solution closest to pole. */
          sinth1 = (-b + d)/a;
          sinth2 = (-b - d)/a;
          sinthe = (sinth1 > sinth2) ? sinth1 : sinth2;
          if (sinthe > 1.0) {
            if (sinthe-1.0 < tol) {
              sinthe = 1.0;
            } else {
              sinthe = (sinth1 < sinth2) ? sinth1 : sinth2;
            }
          }

          if (sinthe < -1.0) {
            if (sinthe+1.0 > -tol) {
              sinthe = -1.0;
            }
          }

          if (sinthe > 1.0 || sinthe < -1.0) {
            *phip = 0.0;
            *thetap = 0.0;
            *(statp++) = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("sinx2s")
            continue;
          }

          *thetap = asind(sinthe);
          z = 1.0 - sinthe;
        }

        x1 = -y0 + eta*z;
        y1 =  x0 -  xi*z;
        if (x1 == 0.0 && y1 == 0.0) {
          *phip = 0.0;
        } else {
          *phip = atan2d(y1,x1);
        }
      }

      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int sins2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, costhe, sinphi, r, t, z, z1, z2;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != SIN) {
    if ((status = sinset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    t = (90.0 - fabs(*thetap))*D2R;
    if (t < 1.0e-5) {
      if (*thetap > 0.0) {
         z = t*t/2.0;
      } else {
         z = 2.0 - t*t/2.0;
      }
      costhe = t;
    } else {
      z = 1.0 - sind(*thetap);
      costhe = cosd(*thetap);
    }
    r = prj->r0*costhe;

    if (prj->w[1] == 0.0) {
      /* Orthographic projection. */
      istat = 0;
      if (prj->bounds && *thetap < 0.0) {
        istat  = 1;
        if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("sins2x");
      }

      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
        *yp = -r*(*yp) - prj->y0;
        *(statp++) = istat;
      }

    } else {
      /* "Synthesis" projection. */
      z *= prj->r0;
      z1 = prj->pv[1]*z - prj->x0;
      z2 = prj->pv[2]*z - prj->y0;

      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        istat = 0;
        if (prj->bounds) {
          t = -atand(prj->pv[1]*(*xp) - prj->pv[2]*(*yp));
          if (*thetap < t) {
            istat  = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("sins2x");
          }
        }

        *xp =  r*(*xp) + z1;
        *yp = -r*(*yp) + z2;
        *(statp++) = istat;
      }
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   ARC: zenithal/azimuthal equidistant projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to  0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 90.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     ARC
*      prj->code    "ARC"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/180)
*      prj->w[1]    (180/pi)/r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to arcx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to arcs2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int arcset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = ARC;
  strcpy(prj->code, "ARC");

  strcpy(prj->name, "zenithal/azimuthal equidistant");
  prj->category  = ZENITHAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 1;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 1.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*D2R;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = arcx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = arcs2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 90.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int arcx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double r, xj, yj, yj2;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != ARC) {
    if ((status = arcset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj  = *yp + prj->y0;
    yj2 = yj*yj;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + yj2);
      if (r == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
        *thetap = 90.0;
      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(xj, -yj);
        *thetap = 90.0 - r*prj->w[1];
      }

      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int arcs2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, r, sinphi;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != ARC) {
    if ((status = arcset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    r =  prj->w[0]*(90.0 - *thetap);

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = -r*(*yp) - prj->y0;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   ZPN: zenithal/azimuthal polynomial projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[]    Polynomial coefficients.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to  0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 90.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     ZPN
*      prj->code    "ZPN"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->n       Degree of the polynomial, N.
*      prj->w[0]    Co-latitude of the first point of inflection, radian.
*      prj->w[1]    Radius of the first point of inflection (N > 1), radian.
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to zpnx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to zpns2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int zpnset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  int j, k, m;
  double d, d1, d2, r, zd, zd1, zd2;
  const double tol = 1.0e-13;

  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  strcpy(prj->code, "ZPN");
  prj->flag = ZPN;

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) prj->pv[1] = 0.0;
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] = 0.0;
  if (undefined(prj->pv[3])) prj->pv[3] = 0.0;
  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  strcpy(prj->name, "zenithal/azimuthal polynomial");
  prj->category  = ZENITHAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 30;
  prj->simplezen = 1;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  /* Find the highest non-zero coefficient. */
  for (k = PVN-1; k >= 0 && prj->pv[k] == 0.0; k--);
  if (k < 0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("zpnset");
  }

  prj->n = k;

  if (k < 2) {
    /* No point of inflection. */
    prj->w[0] = PI;

  } else {
    /* Find the point of inflection closest to the pole. */
    zd1 = 0.0;
    d1  = prj->pv[1];
    if (d1 <= 0.0) {
      return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("zpnset");
    }

    /* Find the point where the derivative first goes negative. */
    for (j = 0; j < 180; j++) {
      zd2 = j*D2R;
      d2  = 0.0;
      for (m = k; m > 0; m--) {
        d2 = d2*zd2 + m*prj->pv[m];
      }

      if (d2 <= 0.0) break;
      zd1 = zd2;
      d1  = d2;
    }

    if (j == 180) {
      /* No negative derivative -> no point of inflection. */
      zd = PI;
      prj->global = 1;
    } else {
      /* Find where the derivative is zero. */
      for (j = 1; j <= 10; j++) {
        zd = zd1 - d1*(zd2-zd1)/(d2-d1);

        d = 0.0;
        for (m = k; m > 0; m--) {
          d = d*zd + m*prj->pv[m];
        }

        if (fabs(d) < tol) break;

        if (d < 0.0) {
          zd2 = zd;
          d2  = d;
        } else {
          zd1 = zd;
          d1  = d;
        }
      }
    }

    r = 0.0;
    for (m = k; m >= 0; m--) {
      r = r*zd + prj->pv[m];
    }
    prj->w[0] = zd;
    prj->w[1] = r;
  }

  prj->prjx2s = zpnx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = zpns2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 90.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int zpnx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int j, k, m, mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double a, b, c, d, lambda, r, r1, r2, rt, xj, yj, yj2, zd, zd1, zd2;
  const double tol = 1.0e-13;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != ZPN) {
    if ((status = zpnset(prj))) return status;
  }

  k = prj->n;

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj  = *yp + prj->y0;
    yj2 = yj*yj;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + yj2)/prj->r0;
      if (r == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(xj, -yj);
      }

      if (k < 1) {
        /* Constant - no solution. */
        return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("zpnx2s");
      } else if (k == 1) {
        /* Linear. */
        zd = (r - prj->pv[0])/prj->pv[1];
      } else if (k == 2) {
        /* Quadratic. */
        a = prj->pv[2];
        b = prj->pv[1];
        c = prj->pv[0] - r;

        d = b*b - 4.0*a*c;
        if (d < 0.0) {
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("zpnx2s");
          continue;
        }
        d = sqrt(d);

        /* Choose solution closest to pole. */
        zd1 = (-b + d)/(2.0*a);
        zd2 = (-b - d)/(2.0*a);
        zd  = (zd1<zd2) ? zd1 : zd2;
        if (zd < -tol) zd = (zd1>zd2) ? zd1 : zd2;
        if (zd < 0.0) {
          if (zd < -tol) {
            *thetap = 0.0;
            *(statp++) = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("zpnx2s");
            continue;
          }
          zd = 0.0;
        } else if (zd > PI) {
          if (zd > PI+tol) {
            *thetap = 0.0;
            *(statp++) = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("zpnx2s");
            continue;
          }
          zd = PI;
        }
      } else {
        /* Higher order - solve iteratively. */
        zd1 = 0.0;
        r1  = prj->pv[0];
        zd2 = prj->w[0];
        r2  = prj->w[1];

        if (r < r1) {
          if (r < r1-tol) {
            *thetap = 0.0;
            *(statp++) = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("zpnx2s");
            continue;
          }
          zd = zd1;
        } else if (r > r2) {
          if (r > r2+tol) {
            *thetap = 0.0;
            *(statp++) = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("zpnx2s");
            continue;
          }
          zd = zd2;
        } else {
          /* Disect the interval. */
          for (j = 0; j < 100; j++) {
            lambda = (r2 - r)/(r2 - r1);
            if (lambda < 0.1) {
              lambda = 0.1;
            } else if (lambda > 0.9) {
              lambda = 0.9;
            }

            zd = zd2 - lambda*(zd2 - zd1);

            rt = 0.0;
            for (m = k; m >= 0; m--) {
              rt = (rt * zd) + prj->pv[m];
            }

            if (rt < r) {
              if (r-rt < tol) break;
              r1 = rt;
              zd1 = zd;
            } else {
              if (rt-r < tol) break;
              r2 = rt;
              zd2 = zd;
            }

            if (fabs(zd2-zd1) < tol) break;
          }
        }
      }

      *thetap = 90.0 - zd*R2D;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int zpns2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int m, mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, r, s, sinphi;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != ZPN) {
    if ((status = zpnset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    s = (90.0 - *thetap)*D2R;

    r = 0.0;
    for (m = prj->n; m >= 0; m--) {
      r = r*s + prj->pv[m];
    }
    r *= prj->r0;

    istat = 0;
    if (prj->bounds && s > prj->w[0]) {
      istat  = 1;
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("zpns2x");
    }

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = -r*(*yp) - prj->y0;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   ZEA: zenithal/azimuthal equal area projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to  0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 90.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     ZEA
*      prj->code    "ZEA"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    2*r0
*      prj->w[1]    1/(2*r0)
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to zeax2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to zeas2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int zeaset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = ZEA;
  strcpy(prj->code, "ZEA");

  strcpy(prj->name, "zenithal/azimuthal equal area");
  prj->category  = ZENITHAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 1;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 360.0/PI;
    prj->w[1] = PI/360.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = 2.0*prj->r0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = zeax2s;
  prj->prjs2x = zeas2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 90.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int zeax2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double r, s, xj, yj, yj2;
  const double tol = 1.0e-12;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != ZEA) {
    if ((status = zeaset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj  = *yp + prj->y0;
    yj2 = yj*yj;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj  = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + yj2);
      if (r == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(xj, -yj);
      }

      s = r*prj->w[1];
      if (fabs(s) > 1.0) {
        if (fabs(r - prj->w[0]) < tol) {
          *thetap = -90.0;
        } else {
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("zeax2s");
          continue;
        }
      } else {
        *thetap = 90.0 - 2.0*asind(s);
      }

      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int zeas2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, r, sinphi;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != ZEA) {
    if ((status = zeaset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    r =  prj->w[0]*sind((90.0 - *thetap)/2.0);

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = -r*(*yp) - prj->y0;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   AIR: Airy's projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   Latitude theta_b within which the error is minimized, in
*                   degrees.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to  0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 90.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     AIR
*      prj->code    "AIR"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    2*r0
*      prj->w[1]    ln(cos(xi_b))/tan(xi_b)**2, where xi_b = (90-theta_b)/2
*      prj->w[2]    1/2 - prj->w[1]
*      prj->w[3]    2*r0*prj->w[2]
*      prj->w[4]    tol, cutoff for using small angle approximation, in
*                   radians.
*      prj->w[5]    prj->w[2]*tol
*      prj->w[6]    (180/pi)/prj->w[2]
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to airx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to airs2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int airset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  const double tol = 1.0e-4;
  double cosxi;

  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = AIR;
  strcpy(prj->code, "AIR");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) prj->pv[1] = 90.0;
  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  strcpy(prj->name, "Airy's zenithal");
  prj->category  = ZENITHAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 101;
  prj->simplezen = 1;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = 1;

  prj->w[0] = 2.0*prj->r0;
  if (prj->pv[1] == 90.0) {
    prj->w[1] = -0.5;
    prj->w[2] =  1.0;
  } else if (prj->pv[1] > -90.0) {
    cosxi = cosd((90.0 - prj->pv[1])/2.0);
    prj->w[1] = log(cosxi)*(cosxi*cosxi)/(1.0-cosxi*cosxi);
    prj->w[2] = 0.5 - prj->w[1];
  } else {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("airset");
  }

  prj->w[3] = prj->w[0] * prj->w[2];
  prj->w[4] = tol;
  prj->w[5] = prj->w[2]*tol;
  prj->w[6] = R2D/prj->w[2];

  prj->prjx2s = airx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = airs2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 90.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int airx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int k, mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosxi, lambda, r, r1, r2, rt, tanxi, x1, x2, xi, xj, yj, yj2;
  const double tol = 1.0e-12;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != AIR) {
    if ((status = airset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj  = *yp + prj->y0;
    yj2 = yj*yj;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + yj2)/prj->w[0];
      if (r == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(xj, -yj);
      }


      if (r == 0.0) {
        xi = 0.0;
      } else if (r < prj->w[5]) {
        xi = r*prj->w[6];
      } else {
        /* Find a solution interval. */
        x1 = x2 = 1.0;
        r1 = r2 = 0.0;
        for (k = 0; k < 30; k++) {
          x2 = x1/2.0;
          tanxi = sqrt(1.0-x2*x2)/x2;
          r2 = -(log(x2)/tanxi + prj->w[1]*tanxi);

          if (r2 >= r) break;
          x1 = x2;
          r1 = r2;
        }
        if (k == 30) {
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("airx2s");
          continue;
        }

        for (k = 0; k < 100; k++) {
          /* Weighted division of the interval. */
          lambda = (r2-r)/(r2-r1);
          if (lambda < 0.1) {
            lambda = 0.1;
          } else if (lambda > 0.9) {
            lambda = 0.9;
          }
          cosxi = x2 - lambda*(x2-x1);

          tanxi = sqrt(1.0-cosxi*cosxi)/cosxi;
          rt = -(log(cosxi)/tanxi + prj->w[1]*tanxi);

          if (rt < r) {
            if (r-rt < tol) break;
            r1 = rt;
            x1 = cosxi;
          } else {
            if (rt-r < tol) break;
            r2 = rt;
            x2 = cosxi;
          }
        }
        if (k == 100) {
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("airx2s");
          continue;
        }

        xi = acosd(cosxi);
      }

      *thetap = 90.0 - 2.0*xi;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int airs2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, cosxi, r, tanxi, xi, sinphi;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != AIR) {
    if ((status = airset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    istat = 0;

    if (*thetap == 90.0) {
      r = 0.0;
    } else if (*thetap > -90.0) {
      xi = D2R*(90.0 - *thetap)/2.0;
      if (xi < prj->w[4]) {
        r = xi*prj->w[3];
      } else {
        cosxi = cosd((90.0 - *thetap)/2.0);
        tanxi = sqrt(1.0-cosxi*cosxi)/cosxi;
        r = -prj->w[0]*(log(cosxi)/tanxi + prj->w[1]*tanxi);
      }
    } else {
      r = 0.0;
      istat  = 1;
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("airs2x");
    }

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = -r*(*yp) - prj->y0;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   CYP: cylindrical perspective projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   Distance of point of projection from the centre of the
*                   generating sphere, mu, in units of r0.
*      prj->pv[2]   Radius of the cylinder of projection, lambda, in units of
*                   r0.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     CYP
*      prj->code    "CYP"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*lambda*(pi/180)
*      prj->w[1]    (180/pi)/(r0*lambda)
*      prj->w[2]    r0*(mu + lambda)
*      prj->w[3]    1/(r0*(mu + lambda))
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to cypx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to cyps2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int cypset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = CYP;
  strcpy(prj->code, "CYP");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) prj->pv[1] = 1.0;
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] = 1.0;

  strcpy(prj->name, "cylindrical perspective");
  prj->category  = CYLINDRICAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 102;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = prj->pv[1] < -1.0 || 0.0 < prj->pv[1];
  prj->divergent = !prj->global;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;

    prj->w[0] = prj->pv[2];
    if (prj->w[0] == 0.0) {
      return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("cypset");
    }

    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];

    prj->w[2] = R2D*(prj->pv[1] + prj->pv[2]);
    if (prj->w[2] == 0.0) {
      return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("cypset");
    }

    prj->w[3] = 1.0/prj->w[2];
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*prj->pv[2]*D2R;
    if (prj->w[0] == 0.0) {
      return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("cypset");
    }

    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];

    prj->w[2] = prj->r0*(prj->pv[1] + prj->pv[2]);
    if (prj->w[2] == 0.0) {
      return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("cypset");
    }

    prj->w[3] = 1.0/prj->w[2];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = cypx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = cyps2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int cypx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double eta, s, t;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != CYP) {
    if ((status = cypset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    s = prj->w[1]*(*xp + prj->x0);

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = s;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  thetap = theta;
  statp = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    eta = prj->w[3]*(*yp + prj->y0);
    t = atan2d(eta,1.0) + asind(eta*prj->pv[1]/sqrt(eta*eta+1.0));

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, thetap += spt) {
      *thetap = t;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int cyps2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double eta, xi;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != CYP) {
    if ((status = cypset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    xi = prj->w[0]*(*phip) - prj->x0;

    xp = x + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = xi;
      xp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    eta = prj->pv[1] + cosd(*thetap);

    istat = 0;
    if (eta == 0.0) {
      istat  = 1;
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("cyps2x");

    } else {
      eta = prj->w[2]*sind(*thetap)/eta;
    }

    eta -= prj->y0;
    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, yp += sxy) {
      *yp = eta;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   CEA: cylindrical equal area projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   Square of the cosine of the latitude at which the
*                   projection is conformal, lambda.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     CEA
*      prj->code    "CEA"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/180)
*      prj->w[1]    (180/pi)/r0
*      prj->w[2]    r0/lambda
*      prj->w[3]    lambda/r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to ceax2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to ceas2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int ceaset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = CEA;
  strcpy(prj->code, "CEA");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) prj->pv[1] = 1.0;

  strcpy(prj->name, "cylindrical equal area");
  prj->category  = CYLINDRICAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 101;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 1.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0;
    if (prj->pv[1] <= 0.0 || prj->pv[1] > 1.0) {
      return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("ceaset");
    }
    prj->w[2] = prj->r0/prj->pv[1];
    prj->w[3] = prj->pv[1]/prj->r0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*D2R;
    prj->w[1] = R2D/prj->r0;
    if (prj->pv[1] <= 0.0 || prj->pv[1] > 1.0) {
      return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("ceaset");
    }
    prj->w[2] = prj->r0/prj->pv[1];
    prj->w[3] = prj->pv[1]/prj->r0;
  }

  prj->prjx2s = ceax2s;
  prj->prjs2x = ceas2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int ceax2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double s;
  const double tol = 1.0e-13;
  register int istat, ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != CEA) {
    if ((status = ceaset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    s = prj->w[1]*(*xp + prj->x0);

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = s;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  thetap = theta;
  statp = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    s = prj->w[3]*(*yp + prj->y0);

    istat = 0;
    if (fabs(s) > 1.0) {
      if (fabs(s) > 1.0+tol) {
        s = 0.0;
        istat  = 1;
        if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("ceax2s");
      } else {
        s = copysign(90.0, s);
      }
    } else {
      s = asind(s);
    }

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, thetap += spt) {
      *thetap = s;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int ceas2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double eta, xi;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != CEA) {
    if ((status = ceaset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    xi = prj->w[0]*(*phip) - prj->x0;

    xp = x + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = xi;
      xp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    eta = prj->w[2]*sind(*thetap) - prj->y0;

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, yp += sxy) {
      *yp = eta;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   CAR: Plate carree projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     CAR
*      prj->code    "CAR"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/180)
*      prj->w[1]    (180/pi)/r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to carx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to cars2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int carset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = CAR;
  strcpy(prj->code, "CAR");

  strcpy(prj->name, "plate caree");
  prj->category  = CYLINDRICAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 1.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*D2R;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = carx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = cars2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int carx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double s, t;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != CAR) {
    if ((status = carset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    s = prj->w[1]*(*xp + prj->x0);

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = s;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  thetap = theta;
  statp = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    t = prj->w[1]*(*yp + prj->y0);

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, thetap += spt) {
      *thetap = t;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int cars2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double eta, xi;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != CAR) {
    if ((status = carset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    xi = prj->w[0]*(*phip) - prj->x0;

    xp = x + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = xi;
      xp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    eta = prj->w[0]*(*thetap) - prj->y0;

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, yp += sxy) {
      *yp = eta;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   MER: Mercator's projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     MER
*      prj->code    "MER"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/180)
*      prj->w[1]    (180/pi)/r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to merx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to mers2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int merset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = MER;
  strcpy(prj->code, "MER");

  strcpy(prj->name, "Mercator's");
  prj->category  = CYLINDRICAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 1;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = 1;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 1.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*D2R;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = merx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = mers2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int merx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double s, t;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != MER) {
    if ((status = merset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    s = prj->w[1]*(*xp + prj->x0);

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = s;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    t = 2.0*atand(exp((*yp + prj->y0)/prj->r0)) - 90.0;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, thetap += spt) {
      *thetap = t;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int mers2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double eta, xi;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != MER) {
    if ((status = merset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    xi  = prj->w[0]*(*phip) - prj->x0;

    xp = x + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = xi;
      xp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    istat = 0;

    if (*thetap <= -90.0 || *thetap >= 90.0) {
      eta = 0.0;
      istat  = 1;
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("mers2x");
    } else {
      eta = prj->r0*log(tand((*thetap+90.0)/2.0)) - prj->y0;
    }

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, yp += sxy) {
      *yp = eta;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   SFL: Sanson-Flamsteed ("global sinusoid") projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     SFL
*      prj->code    "SFL"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/180)
*      prj->w[1]    (180/pi)/r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to sflx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to sfls2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int sflset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = SFL;
  strcpy(prj->code, "SFL");

  strcpy(prj->name, "Sanson-Flamsteed");
  prj->category  = PSEUDOCYLINDRICAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 1.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*D2R;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = sflx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = sfls2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int sflx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double s, t, yj;
  register int istat, ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != SFL) {
    if ((status = sflset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    s = prj->w[1]*(*xp + prj->x0);

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = s;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj = *yp + prj->y0;
    s = cos(yj/prj->r0);

    istat = 0;
    if (s == 0.0) {
      istat  = 1;
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("sflx2s");
    } else {
      s = 1.0/s;
    }

    t = prj->w[1]*yj;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      *phip  *= s;
      *thetap = t;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int sfls2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double eta, xi;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != SFL) {
    if ((status = sflset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    xi = prj->w[0]*(*phip);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = xi;
      xp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    xi  = cosd(*thetap);
    eta = prj->w[0]*(*thetap) - prj->y0;

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp = xi*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = eta;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   PAR: parabolic projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     PAR
*      prj->code    "PAR"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/180)
*      prj->w[1]    (180/pi)/r0
*      prj->w[2]    pi*r0
*      prj->w[3]    1/(pi*r0)
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to parx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to pars2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int parset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = PAR;
  strcpy(prj->code, "PAR");

  strcpy(prj->name, "parabolic");
  prj->category  = PSEUDOCYLINDRICAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 1.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0;
    prj->w[2] = 180.0;
    prj->w[3] = 1.0/prj->w[2];
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*D2R;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
    prj->w[2] = PI*prj->r0;
    prj->w[3] = 1.0/prj->w[2];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = parx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = pars2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int parx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double r, s, t, xj;
  const double tol = 1.0e-13;
  register int istat, ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != PAR) {
    if ((status = parset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;
    s = prj->w[1]*xj;
    t = fabs(xj) - tol;

    phip   = phi   + rowoff;
    thetap = theta + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip   = s;
      *thetap = t;
      phip   += rowlen;
      thetap += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    r = prj->w[3]*(*yp + prj->y0);

    istat = 0;
    if (r > 1.0 || r < -1.0) {
      s = 0.0;
      t = 0.0;
      istat  = 1;
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("parx2s");

    } else {
      s = 1.0 - 4.0*r*r;
      if (s == 0.0) {
        /* Deferred test. */
        istat = -1;
      } else {
        s = 1.0/s;
      }

      t = 3.0*asind(r);
    }

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      if (istat < 0) {
        if (*thetap < 0.0) {
          *(statp++) = 0;
        } else {
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("parx2s");
        }
      }

      *phip  *= s;
      *thetap = t;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int pars2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double eta, s, xi;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != PAR) {
    if ((status = parset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    xi = prj->w[0]*(*phip);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = xi;
      xp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    s = sind((*thetap)/3.0);
    xi = (1.0 - 4.0*s*s);
    eta = prj->w[2]*s - prj->y0;

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp = xi*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = eta;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   MOL: Mollweide's projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     MOL
*      prj->code    "MOL"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    sqrt(2)*r0
*      prj->w[1]    sqrt(2)*r0/90
*      prj->w[2]    1/(sqrt(2)*r0)
*      prj->w[3]    90/r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to molx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to mols2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int molset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = MOL;
  strcpy(prj->code, "MOL");

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  strcpy(prj->name, "Mollweide's");
  prj->category  = PSEUDOCYLINDRICAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  prj->w[0] = SQRT2*prj->r0;
  prj->w[1] = prj->w[0]/90.0;
  prj->w[2] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  prj->w[3] = 90.0/prj->r0;
  prj->w[4] = 2.0/PI;

  prj->prjx2s = molx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = mols2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int molx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double r, s, t, xj, y0, yj, z;
  const double tol = 1.0e-12;
  register int istat, ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != MOL) {
    if ((status = molset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;
    s = prj->w[3]*xj;
    t = fabs(xj) - tol;

    phip   = phi   + rowoff;
    thetap = theta + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip   = s;
      *thetap = t;
      phip   += rowlen;
      thetap += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj = *yp + prj->y0;
    y0 = yj/prj->r0;
    r  = 2.0 - y0*y0;

    istat = 0;
    if (r <= tol) {
      if (r < -tol) {
        istat  = 1;
        if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("molx2s");
      } else {
        /* OK if fabs(x) < tol whence phi = 0.0. */
        istat = -1;
      }

      r = 0.0;
      s = 0.0;

    } else {
      r = sqrt(r);
      s = 1.0/r;
    }

    z = yj*prj->w[2];
    if (fabs(z) > 1.0) {
      if (fabs(z) > 1.0+tol) {
        z = 0.0;
        istat  = 1;
        if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("molx2s");
      } else {
        z = copysign(1.0, z) + y0*r/PI;
      }
    } else {
      z = asin(z)*prj->w[4] + y0*r/PI;
    }

    if (fabs(z) > 1.0) {
      if (fabs(z) > 1.0+tol) {
        z = 0.0;
        istat  = 1;
        if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("molx2s");
      } else {
        z = copysign(1.0, z);
      }
    }

    t = asind(z);

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      if (istat < 0) {
        if (*thetap < 0.0) {
          *(statp++) = 0;
        } else {
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("molx2s");
        }
      }

      *phip  *= s;
      *thetap = t;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int mols2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int k, mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double eta, gamma, resid, u, v, v0, v1, xi;
  const double tol = 1.0e-13;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != MOL) {
    if ((status = molset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    xi = prj->w[1]*(*phip);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = xi;
      xp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    if (fabs(*thetap) == 90.0) {
      xi  = 0.0;
      eta = copysign(prj->w[0], *thetap);
    } else if (*thetap == 0.0) {
      xi  = 1.0;
      eta = 0.0;
    } else {
      u  = PI*sind(*thetap);
      v0 = -PI;
      v1 =  PI;
      v  = u;
      for (k = 0; k < 100; k++) {
        resid = (v - u) + sin(v);
        if (resid < 0.0) {
          if (resid > -tol) break;
          v0 = v;
        } else {
          if (resid < tol) break;
          v1 = v;
        }
        v = (v0 + v1)/2.0;
      }

      gamma = v/2.0;
      xi  = cos(gamma);
      eta = prj->w[0]*sin(gamma);
    }

    eta -= prj->y0;
    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp = xi*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = eta;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   AIT: Hammer-Aitoff projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     AIT
*      prj->code    "AIT"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    2*r0**2
*      prj->w[1]    1/(2*r0)**2
*      prj->w[2]    1/(4*r0)**2
*      prj->w[3]    1/(2*r0)
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to aitx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to aits2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int aitset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = AIT;
  strcpy(prj->code, "AIT");

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  strcpy(prj->name, "Hammer-Aitoff");
  prj->category  = CONVENTIONAL;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  prj->w[0] = 2.0*prj->r0*prj->r0;
  prj->w[1] = 1.0/(2.0*prj->w[0]);
  prj->w[2] = prj->w[1]/4.0;
  prj->w[3] = 1.0/(2.0*prj->r0);

  prj->prjx2s = aitx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = aits2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int aitx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double s, t, x0, xj, y0, yj, yj2, z;
  const double tol = 1.0e-13;
  register int ix, iy, istat, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != AIT) {
    if ((status = aitset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;
    s  = 1.0 - xj*xj*prj->w[2];
    t  = xj*prj->w[3];

    phip   = phi   + rowoff;
    thetap = theta + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip   = s;
      *thetap = t;
      phip   += rowlen;
      thetap += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj  = *yp + prj->y0;
    yj2 = yj*yj*prj->w[1];

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      s = *phip - yj2;

      istat = 0;
      if (s < 0.5) {
        if (s < 0.5-tol) {
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("aitx2s");
        }

        s = 0.5;
      }

      z = sqrt(s);
      x0 = 2.0*z*z - 1.0;
      y0 = z*(*thetap);
      if (x0 == 0.0 && y0 == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
      } else {
        *phip = 2.0*atan2d(y0, x0);
      }

      t = z*yj/prj->r0;
      if (fabs(t) > 1.0) {
        if (fabs(t) > 1.0+tol) {
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("aitx2s");
        }
        t = copysign(90.0, t);

      } else {
        t = asind(t);
      }

      *thetap = t;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int aits2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, costhe, sinphi, sinthe, w;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != AIT) {
    if ((status = aitset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    w = (*phip)/2.0;
    sincosd(w, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinphi;
      *yp = cosphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    sincosd(*thetap, &sinthe, &costhe);

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      w = sqrt(prj->w[0]/(1.0 + costhe*(*yp)));
      *xp = 2.0*w*costhe*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = w*sinthe - prj->y0;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   COP: conic perspective projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   sigma = (theta2+theta1)/2
*      prj->pv[2]   delta = (theta2-theta1)/2, where theta1 and theta2 are the
*                   latitudes of the standard parallels, in degrees.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to sigma if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to sigma if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     COP
*      prj->code    "COP"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    C  = sin(sigma)
*      prj->w[1]    1/C
*      prj->w[2]    Y0 = r0*cos(delta)*cot(sigma)
*      prj->w[3]    r0*cos(delta)
*      prj->w[4]    1/(r0*cos(delta)
*      prj->w[5]    cot(sigma)
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to copx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to cops2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int copset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = COP;
  strcpy(prj->code, "COP");
  strcpy(prj->name, "conic perspective");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("copset");
  }
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] = 0.0;
  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  prj->category  = CONIC;
  prj->pvrange   = 102;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = 1;

  prj->w[0] = sind(prj->pv[1]);
  if (prj->w[0] == 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("copset");
  }

  prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];

  prj->w[3] = prj->r0*cosd(prj->pv[2]);
  if (prj->w[3] == 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("copset");
  }

  prj->w[4] = 1.0/prj->w[3];
  prj->w[5] = 1.0/tand(prj->pv[1]);

  prj->w[2] = prj->w[3]*prj->w[5];

  prj->prjx2s = copx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = cops2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, prj->pv[1]);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int copx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, dy, dy2, r, xj;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != COP) {
    if ((status = copset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    dy  = prj->w[2] - (*yp + prj->y0);
    dy2 = dy*dy;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + dy2);
      if (prj->pv[1] < 0.0) r = -r;

      if (r == 0.0) {
        alpha = 0.0;
      } else {
        alpha = atan2d(xj/r, dy/r);
      }

      *phip = alpha*prj->w[1];
      *thetap = prj->pv[1] + atand(prj->w[5] - r*prj->w[4]);
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int cops2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, cosalpha, r, s, t, sinalpha, y0;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != COP) {
    if ((status = copset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    alpha = prj->w[0]*(*phip);
    sincosd(alpha, &sinalpha, &cosalpha);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinalpha;
      *yp = cosalpha;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  y0 = prj->y0 - prj->w[2];
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    t = *thetap - prj->pv[1];
    s = cosd(t);

    istat = 0;
    if (s == 0.0) {
      r = 0.0;
      istat  = 1;
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("cops2x");

    } else {
      r = prj->w[2] - prj->w[3]*sind(t)/s;

      if (prj->bounds && r*prj->w[0] < 0.0) {
        istat  = 1;
        if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("cops2x");
      }
    }

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = -r*(*yp) - y0;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   COE: conic equal area projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   sigma = (theta2+theta1)/2
*      prj->pv[2]   delta = (theta2-theta1)/2, where theta1 and theta2 are the
*                   latitudes of the standard parallels, in degrees.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to sigma if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to sigma if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     COE
*      prj->code    "COE"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    C = (sin(theta1) + sin(theta2))/2
*      prj->w[1]    1/C
*      prj->w[2]    Y0 = chi*sqrt(psi - 2C*sind(sigma))
*      prj->w[3]    chi = r0/C
*      prj->w[4]    psi = 1 + sin(theta1)*sin(theta2)
*      prj->w[5]    2C
*      prj->w[6]    (1 + sin(theta1)*sin(theta2))*(r0/C)**2
*      prj->w[7]    C/(2*r0**2)
*      prj->w[8]    chi*sqrt(psi + 2C)
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to coex2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to coes2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int coeset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  double theta1, theta2;

  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = COE;
  strcpy(prj->code, "COE");
  strcpy(prj->name, "conic equal area");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("coeset");
  }
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] = 0.0;
  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  prj->category  = CONIC;
  prj->pvrange   = 102;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  theta1 = prj->pv[1] - prj->pv[2];
  theta2 = prj->pv[1] + prj->pv[2];

  prj->w[0] = (sind(theta1) + sind(theta2))/2.0;
  if (prj->w[0] == 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("coeset");
  }

  prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];

  prj->w[3] = prj->r0/prj->w[0];
  prj->w[4] = 1.0 + sind(theta1)*sind(theta2);
  prj->w[5] = 2.0*prj->w[0];
  prj->w[6] = prj->w[3]*prj->w[3]*prj->w[4];
  prj->w[7] = 1.0/(2.0*prj->r0*prj->w[3]);
  prj->w[8] = prj->w[3]*sqrt(prj->w[4] + prj->w[5]);

  prj->w[2] = prj->w[3]*sqrt(prj->w[4] - prj->w[5]*sind(prj->pv[1]));

  prj->prjx2s = coex2s;
  prj->prjs2x = coes2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, prj->pv[1]);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int coex2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, dy, dy2, r, t, w, xj;
  const double tol = 1.0e-12;
  register int ix, iy, istat, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != COE) {
    if ((status = coeset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    dy  = prj->w[2] - (*yp + prj->y0);
    dy2 = dy*dy;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + dy2);
      if (prj->pv[1] < 0.0) r = -r;

      if (r == 0.0) {
        alpha = 0.0;
      } else {
        alpha = atan2d(xj/r, dy/r);
      }

      istat = 0;
      if (fabs(r - prj->w[8]) < tol) {
        t = -90.0;
      } else {
        w = (prj->w[6] - r*r)*prj->w[7];
        if (fabs(w) > 1.0) {
          if (fabs(w-1.0) < tol) {
            t = 90.0;
          } else if (fabs(w+1.0) < tol) {
            t = -90.0;
          } else {
            t = 0.0;
            istat  = 1;
            if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("coex2s");
          }
        } else {
          t = asind(w);
        }
      }

      *phip = alpha*prj->w[1];
      *thetap = t;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int coes2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, cosalpha, r, sinalpha, y0;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != COE) {
    if ((status = coeset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    alpha = prj->w[0]*(*phip);
    sincosd(alpha, &sinalpha, &cosalpha);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinalpha;
      *yp = cosalpha;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  y0 = prj->y0 - prj->w[2];
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    if (*thetap == -90.0) {
      r = prj->w[8];
    } else {
      r = prj->w[3]*sqrt(prj->w[4] - prj->w[5]*sind(*thetap));
    }

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = -r*(*yp) - y0;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   COD: conic equidistant projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   sigma = (theta2+theta1)/2
*      prj->pv[2]   delta = (theta2-theta1)/2, where theta1 and theta2 are the
*                   latitudes of the standard parallels, in degrees.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to sigma if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to sigma if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     COD
*      prj->code    "COD"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    C = r0*sin(sigma)*sin(delta)/delta
*      prj->w[1]    1/C
*      prj->w[2]    Y0 = delta*cot(delta)*cot(sigma)
*      prj->w[3]    Y0 + sigma
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to codx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to cods2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int codset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = COD;
  strcpy(prj->code, "COD");
  strcpy(prj->name, "conic equidistant");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("codset");
  }
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] = 0.0;
  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  prj->category  = CONIC;
  prj->pvrange   = 102;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->pv[2] == 0.0) {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*sind(prj->pv[1])*D2R;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*sind(prj->pv[1])*sind(prj->pv[2])/prj->pv[2];
  }

  if (prj->w[0] == 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("codset");
  }

  prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  prj->w[2] = prj->r0*cosd(prj->pv[2])*cosd(prj->pv[1])/prj->w[0];
  prj->w[3] = prj->w[2] + prj->pv[1];

  prj->prjx2s = codx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = cods2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, prj->pv[1]);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int codx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, dy, dy2, r, xj;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != COD) {
    if ((status = codset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    dy  = prj->w[2] - (*yp + prj->y0);
    dy2 = dy*dy;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + dy2);
      if (prj->pv[1] < 0.0) r = -r;

      if (r == 0.0) {
        alpha = 0.0;
      } else {
        alpha = atan2d(xj/r, dy/r);
      }

      *phip = alpha*prj->w[1];
      *thetap = prj->w[3] - r;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int cods2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, cosalpha, r, sinalpha, y0;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != COD) {
    if ((status = codset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    alpha = prj->w[0]*(*phip);
    sincosd(alpha, &sinalpha, &cosalpha);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinalpha;
      *yp = cosalpha;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  y0 = prj->y0 - prj->w[2];
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    r = prj->w[3] - *thetap;

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = -r*(*yp) - y0;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   COO: conic orthomorphic projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   sigma = (theta2+theta1)/2
*      prj->pv[2]   delta = (theta2-theta1)/2, where theta1 and theta2 are the
*                   latitudes of the standard parallels, in degrees.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to sigma if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to sigma if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     COO
*      prj->code    "COO"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    C = ln(cos(theta2)/cos(theta1))/ln(tan(tau2)/tan(tau1))
*                       where tau1 = (90 - theta1)/2
*                             tau2 = (90 - theta2)/2
*      prj->w[1]    1/C
*      prj->w[2]    Y0 = psi*tan((90-sigma)/2)**C
*      prj->w[3]    psi = (r0*cos(theta1)/C)/tan(tau1)**C
*      prj->w[4]    1/psi
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to coox2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to coos2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int cooset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  double cos1, cos2, tan1, tan2, theta1, theta2;

  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = COO;
  strcpy(prj->code, "COO");
  strcpy(prj->name, "conic orthomorphic");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("cooset");
  }
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] = 0.0;
  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) prj->r0 = R2D;

  prj->category  = CONIC;
  prj->pvrange   = 102;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 1;
  prj->global    = 0;
  prj->divergent = 1;

  theta1 = prj->pv[1] - prj->pv[2];
  theta2 = prj->pv[1] + prj->pv[2];

  tan1 = tand((90.0 - theta1)/2.0);
  cos1 = cosd(theta1);

  if (theta1 == theta2) {
    prj->w[0] = sind(theta1);
  } else {
    tan2 = tand((90.0 - theta2)/2.0);
    cos2 = cosd(theta2);
    prj->w[0] = log(cos2/cos1)/log(tan2/tan1);
  }
  if (prj->w[0] == 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("cooset");
  }

  prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];

  prj->w[3] = prj->r0*(cos1/prj->w[0])/pow(tan1,prj->w[0]);
  if (prj->w[3] == 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("cooset");
  }
  prj->w[2] = prj->w[3]*pow(tand((90.0 - prj->pv[1])/2.0),prj->w[0]);
  prj->w[4] = 1.0/prj->w[3];

  prj->prjx2s = coox2s;
  prj->prjs2x = coos2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, prj->pv[1]);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int coox2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, dy, dy2, r, t, xj;
  register int ix, iy, istat, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != COO) {
    if ((status = cooset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    dy  = prj->w[2] - (*yp + prj->y0);
    dy2 = dy*dy;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + dy2);
      if (prj->pv[1] < 0.0) r = -r;

      if (r == 0.0) {
        alpha = 0.0;
      } else {
        alpha = atan2d(xj/r, dy/r);
      }

      istat = 0;
      if (r == 0.0) {
        if (prj->w[0] < 0.0) {
          t = -90.0;
        } else {
          t = 0.0;
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("coox2s");
        }
      } else {
        t = 90.0 - 2.0*atand(pow(r*prj->w[4],prj->w[1]));
      }

      *phip = alpha*prj->w[1];
      *thetap = t;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int coos2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, cosalpha, r, sinalpha, y0;
  register int iphi, itheta, istat, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != COO) {
    if ((status = cooset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    alpha = prj->w[0]*(*phip);
    sincosd(alpha, &sinalpha, &cosalpha);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = sinalpha;
      *yp = cosalpha;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  y0 = prj->y0 - prj->w[2];
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    istat = 0;

    if (*thetap == -90.0) {
      r = 0.0;
      if (prj->w[0] >= 0.0) {
        istat  = 1;
        if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("coos2x");
      }
    } else {
      r = prj->w[3]*pow(tand((90.0 - *thetap)/2.0),prj->w[0]);
    }

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      *xp =  r*(*xp) - prj->x0;
      *yp = -r*(*yp) - y0;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   BON: Bonne's projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   Bonne conformal latitude, theta1, in degrees.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     BON
*      prj->code    "BON"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[1]    r0*pi/180
*      prj->w[2]    Y0 = r0*(cot(theta1) + theta1*pi/180)
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to bonx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to bons2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int bonset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = BON;
  strcpy(prj->code, "BON");
  strcpy(prj->name, "Bonne's");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("bonset");
  }

  if (prj->pv[1] == 0.0) {
    /* Sanson-Flamsteed. */
    return sflset(prj);
  }

  prj->category  = POLYCONIC;
  prj->pvrange   = 101;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0;
    prj->w[2] = prj->r0*cosd(prj->pv[1])/sind(prj->pv[1]) + prj->pv[1];
  } else {
    prj->w[1] = prj->r0*D2R;
    prj->w[2] = prj->r0*(cosd(prj->pv[1])/sind(prj->pv[1]) + prj->pv[1]*D2R);
  }

  prj->prjx2s = bonx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = bons2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int bonx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, dy, dy2, costhe, r, s, t, xj;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->pv[1] == 0.0) {
    /* Sanson-Flamsteed. */
    return sflx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat);
  }

  if (prj->flag != BON) {
    if ((status = bonset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    dy  = prj->w[2] - (*yp + prj->y0);
    dy2 = dy*dy;

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      r = sqrt(xj*xj + dy2);
      if (prj->pv[1] < 0.0) r = -r;

      if (r == 0.0) {
        alpha = 0.0;
      } else {
        alpha = atan2d(xj/r, dy/r);
      }

      t = (prj->w[2] - r)/prj->w[1];
      costhe = cosd(t);
      if (costhe == 0.0) {
        s = 0.0;
      } else {
        s = alpha*(r/prj->r0)/costhe;
      }

      *phip = s;
      *thetap = t;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int bons2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, cosalpha, r, s, sinalpha, y0;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->pv[1] == 0.0) {
    /* Sanson-Flamsteed. */
    return sfls2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat);
  }

  if (prj->flag != BON) {
    if ((status = bonset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  y0 = prj->y0 - prj->w[2];


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    s = prj->r0*(*phip);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = s;
      xp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    r = prj->w[2] - prj->w[1]*(*thetap);
    s = cosd(*thetap)/r;

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      alpha = s*(*xp);
      sincosd(alpha, &sinalpha, &cosalpha);
      *xp =  r*sinalpha - prj->x0;
      *yp = -r*cosalpha - y0;
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   PCO: polyconic projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     PCO
*      prj->code    "PCO"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/180)
*      prj->w[1]    1/r0
*      prj->w[2]    2*r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to pcox2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to pcos2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int pcoset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = PCO;
  strcpy(prj->code, "PCO");

  strcpy(prj->name, "polyconic");
  prj->category  = POLYCONIC;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 1.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0;
    prj->w[2] = 360.0/PI;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*D2R;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
    prj->w[2] = 2.0*prj->r0;
  }

  prj->prjx2s = pcox2s;
  prj->prjs2x = pcos2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int pcox2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double f, fneg, fpos, lambda, tanthe, the, theneg, thepos, w, x1, xj, xx,
         yj, ymthe, y1;
  const double tol = 1.0e-12;
  register int ix, iy, k, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != PCO) {
    if ((status = pcoset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xj = *xp + prj->x0;

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xj;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yj = *yp + prj->y0;
    w  = fabs(yj*prj->w[1]);

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xj = *phip;

      if (w < tol) {
        *phip = xj*prj->w[1];
        *thetap = 0.0;

      } else if (fabs(w-90.0) < tol) {
        *phip = 0.0;
        *thetap = copysign(90.0, yj);

      } else {
        /* Iterative solution using weighted division of the interval. */
        if (yj > 0.0) {
          thepos =  90.0;
        } else {
          thepos = -90.0;
        }
        theneg = 0.0;

        xx = xj*xj;
        ymthe = yj - prj->w[0]*thepos;
        fpos = xx + ymthe*ymthe;
        fneg = -999.0;

        for (k = 0; k < 64; k++) {
          if (fneg < -100.0) {
            /* Equal division of the interval. */
            the = (thepos+theneg)/2.0;
          } else {
            /* Weighted division of the interval. */
            lambda = fpos/(fpos-fneg);
            if (lambda < 0.1) {
              lambda = 0.1;
            } else if (lambda > 0.9) {
              lambda = 0.9;
            }
            the = thepos - lambda*(thepos-theneg);
          }

          /* Compute the residue. */
          ymthe = yj - prj->w[0]*(the);
          tanthe = tand(the);
          f = xx + ymthe*(ymthe - prj->w[2]/tanthe);

          /* Check for convergence. */
          if (fabs(f) < tol) break;
          if (fabs(thepos-theneg) < tol) break;

          /* Redefine the interval. */
          if (f > 0.0) {
            thepos = the;
            fpos = f;
          } else {
            theneg = the;
            fneg = f;
          }
        }

        x1 = prj->r0 - ymthe*tanthe;
        y1 = xj*tanthe;
        if (x1 == 0.0 && y1 == 0.0) {
          *phip = 0.0;
        } else {
          *phip = atan2d(y1, x1)/sind(the);
        }

        *thetap = the;
      }

      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int pcos2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double alpha, costhe, cotthe, sinthe, therad;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != PCO) {
    if ((status = pcoset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    xp = x + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = *phip;
      xp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    therad = (*thetap)*D2R;
    sincosd(*thetap, &sinthe, &costhe);

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      if (sinthe == 0.0) {
        *xp =  prj->w[0]*(*xp) - prj->x0;
        *yp = -prj->y0;
      } else {
        alpha  = (*xp)*sinthe;
        cotthe = costhe/sinthe;
        *xp = prj->r0*cotthe*sind(alpha) - prj->x0;
        *yp = prj->r0*(cotthe*(1.0 - cosd(alpha)) + therad) - prj->y0;
      }

      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

/*============================================================================
*   TSC: tangential spherical cube projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     TSC
*      prj->code    "TSC"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/4)
*      prj->w[1]    (4/pi)/r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to tscx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to tscs2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int tscset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = TSC;
  strcpy(prj->code, "TSC");

  strcpy(prj->name, "tangential spherical cube");
  prj->category  = QUADCUBE;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 45.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/45.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*PI/4.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = tscx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = tscs2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int tscx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double l, m, n, xf, yf;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != TSC) {
    if ((status = tscset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xf = (*xp + prj->x0)*prj->w[1];

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xf;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yf = (*yp + prj->y0)*prj->w[1];

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xf = *phip;

      /* Check bounds. */
      if (fabs(xf) <= 1.0) {
        if (fabs(yf) > 3.0) {
          *phip = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("tscx2s");
          continue;
        }
      } else {
        if (fabs(xf) > 7.0 || fabs(yf) > 1.0) {
          *phip = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("tscx2s");
          continue;
        }
      }

      /* Map negative faces to the other side. */
      if (xf < -1.0) xf += 8.0;

      /* Determine the face. */
      if (xf > 5.0) {
        /* face = 4 */
        xf = xf - 6.0;
        m  = -1.0/sqrt(1.0 + xf*xf + yf*yf);
        l  = -m*xf;
        n  = -m*yf;
      } else if (xf > 3.0) {
        /* face = 3 */
        xf = xf - 4.0;
        l  = -1.0/sqrt(1.0 + xf*xf + yf*yf);
        m  =  l*xf;
        n  = -l*yf;
      } else if (xf > 1.0) {
        /* face = 2 */
        xf = xf - 2.0;
        m  =  1.0/sqrt(1.0 + xf*xf + yf*yf);
        l  = -m*xf;
        n  =  m*yf;
      } else if (yf > 1.0) {
        /* face = 0 */
        yf = yf - 2.0;
        n  = 1.0/sqrt(1.0 + xf*xf + yf*yf);
        l  = -n*yf;
        m  =  n*xf;
      } else if (yf < -1.0) {
        /* face = 5 */
        yf = yf + 2.0;
        n  = -1.0/sqrt(1.0 + xf*xf + yf*yf);
        l  = -n*yf;
        m  = -n*xf;
      } else {
        /* face = 1 */
        l  =  1.0/sqrt(1.0 + xf*xf + yf*yf);
        m  =  l*xf;
        n  =  l*yf;
      }

      if (l == 0.0 && m == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(m, l);
      }

      *thetap = asind(n);
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int tscs2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int face, mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, costhe, l, m, n, sinphi, sinthe, x0, xf, y0, yf, zeta;
  const double tol = 1.0e-12;
  register int iphi, istat, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != TSC) {
    if ((status = tscset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = cosphi;
      *yp = sinphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    sincosd(*thetap, &sinthe, &costhe);

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      l = costhe*(*xp);
      m = costhe*(*yp);
      n = sinthe;

      face = 0;
      zeta = n;
      if (l > zeta) {
        face = 1;
        zeta = l;
      }
      if (m > zeta) {
        face = 2;
        zeta = m;
      }
      if (-l > zeta) {
        face = 3;
        zeta = -l;
      }
      if (-m > zeta) {
        face = 4;
        zeta = -m;
      }
      if (-n > zeta) {
        face = 5;
        zeta = -n;
      }

      switch (face) {
      case 1:
        xf =  m/zeta;
        yf =  n/zeta;
        x0 =  0.0;
        y0 =  0.0;
        break;
      case 2:
        xf = -l/zeta;
        yf =  n/zeta;
        x0 =  2.0;
        y0 =  0.0;
        break;
      case 3:
        xf = -m/zeta;
        yf =  n/zeta;
        x0 =  4.0;
        y0 =  0.0;
        break;
      case 4:
        xf =  l/zeta;
        yf =  n/zeta;
        x0 =  6.0;
        y0 =  0.0;
        break;
      case 5:
        xf =  m/zeta;
        yf =  l/zeta;
        x0 =  0.0;
        y0 = -2.0;
        break;
      default:
        /* face == 0 */
        xf =  m/zeta;
        yf = -l/zeta;
        x0 =  0.0;
        y0 =  2.0;
        break;
      }

      istat = 0;
      if (fabs(xf) > 1.0) {
        if (fabs(xf) > 1.0+tol) {
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("tscs2x");
        }
        xf = copysign(1.0, xf);
      }
      if (fabs(yf) > 1.0) {
        if (fabs(yf) > 1.0+tol) {
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("tscs2x");
        }
        yf = copysign(1.0, yf);
      }

      *xp = prj->w[0]*(xf + x0) - prj->x0;
      *yp = prj->w[0]*(yf + y0) - prj->y0;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   CSC: COBE quadrilateralized spherical cube projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     CSC
*      prj->code    "CSC"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/4)
*      prj->w[1]    (4/pi)/r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to cscx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to cscs2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int cscset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = CSC;
  strcpy(prj->code, "CSC");

  strcpy(prj->name, "COBE quadrilateralized spherical cube");
  prj->category  = QUADCUBE;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 0;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 45.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/45.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*PI/4.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = cscx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = cscs2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int cscx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int face, mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double l, m, n;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;

  float     chi, psi, xf, xx, yf, yy, z0, z1, z2, z3, z4, z5, z6;
  const float p00 = -0.27292696;
  const float p10 = -0.07629969;
  const float p20 = -0.22797056;
  const float p30 =  0.54852384;
  const float p40 = -0.62930065;
  const float p50 =  0.25795794;
  const float p60 =  0.02584375;
  const float p01 = -0.02819452;
  const float p11 = -0.01471565;
  const float p21 =  0.48051509;
  const float p31 = -1.74114454;
  const float p41 =  1.71547508;
  const float p51 = -0.53022337;
  const float p02 =  0.27058160;
  const float p12 = -0.56800938;
  const float p22 =  0.30803317;
  const float p32 =  0.98938102;
  const float p42 = -0.83180469;
  const float p03 = -0.60441560;
  const float p13 =  1.50880086;
  const float p23 = -0.93678576;
  const float p33 =  0.08693841;
  const float p04 =  0.93412077;
  const float p14 = -1.41601920;
  const float p24 =  0.33887446;
  const float p05 = -0.63915306;
  const float p15 =  0.52032238;
  const float p06 =  0.14381585;

  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != CSC) {
    if ((status = cscset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xf = (*xp + prj->x0)*prj->w[1];

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xf;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yf = (*yp + prj->y0)*prj->w[1];

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xf = *phip;

      /* Check bounds. */
      if (fabs(xf) <= 1.0) {
        if (fabs(yf) > 3.0) {
          *phip = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("cscx2s");
          continue;
        }
      } else {
        if (fabs(xf) > 7.0 || fabs(yf) > 1.0) {
          *phip = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("cscx2s");
          continue;
        }
      }

      /* Map negative faces to the other side. */
      if (xf < -1.0) xf += 8.0;

      /* Determine the face. */
      if (xf > 5.0) {
        face = 4;
        xf = xf - 6.0;
      } else if (xf > 3.0) {
        face = 3;
        xf = xf - 4.0;
      } else if (xf > 1.0) {
        face = 2;
        xf = xf - 2.0;
      } else if (yf > 1.0) {
        face = 0;
        yf = yf - 2.0;
      } else if (yf < -1.0) {
        face = 5;
        yf = yf + 2.0;
      } else {
        face = 1;
      }

      xx  =  xf*xf;
      yy  =  yf*yf;

      z0 = p00 + xx*(p10 + xx*(p20 + xx*(p30 + xx*(p40 + xx*(p50 +
                 xx*(p60))))));
      z1 = p01 + xx*(p11 + xx*(p21 + xx*(p31 + xx*(p41 + xx*(p51)))));
      z2 = p02 + xx*(p12 + xx*(p22 + xx*(p32 + xx*(p42))));
      z3 = p03 + xx*(p13 + xx*(p23 + xx*(p33)));
      z4 = p04 + xx*(p14 + xx*(p24));
      z5 = p05 + xx*(p15);
      z6 = p06;

      chi = z0 + yy*(z1 + yy*(z2 + yy*(z3 + yy*(z4 + yy*(z5 + yy*z6)))));
      chi = xf + xf*(1.0 - xx)*chi;

      z0 = p00 + yy*(p10 + yy*(p20 + yy*(p30 + yy*(p40 + yy*(p50 +
                 yy*(p60))))));
      z1 = p01 + yy*(p11 + yy*(p21 + yy*(p31 + yy*(p41 + yy*(p51)))));
      z2 = p02 + yy*(p12 + yy*(p22 + yy*(p32 + yy*(p42))));
      z3 = p03 + yy*(p13 + yy*(p23 + yy*(p33)));
      z4 = p04 + yy*(p14 + yy*(p24));
      z5 = p05 + yy*(p15);
      z6 = p06;

      psi = z0 + xx*(z1 + xx*(z2 + xx*(z3 + xx*(z4 + xx*(z5 + xx*z6)))));
      psi = yf + yf*(1.0 - yy)*psi;

      switch (face) {
      case 1:
        l =  1.0/sqrt(chi*chi + psi*psi + 1.0);
        m =  chi*l;
        n =  psi*l;
        break;
      case 2:
        m =  1.0/sqrt(chi*chi + psi*psi + 1.0);
        l = -chi*m;
        n =  psi*m;
        break;
      case 3:
        l = -1.0/sqrt(chi*chi + psi*psi + 1.0);
        m =  chi*l;
        n = -psi*l;
        break;
      case 4:
        m = -1.0/sqrt(chi*chi + psi*psi + 1.0);
        l = -chi*m;
        n = -psi*m;
        break;
      case 5:
        n = -1.0/sqrt(chi*chi + psi*psi + 1.0);
        l = -psi*n;
        m = -chi*n;
        break;
      default:
        /* face == 0 */
        n =  1.0/sqrt(chi*chi + psi*psi + 1.0);
        l = -psi*n;
        m =  chi*n;
        break;
      }

      if (l == 0.0 && m == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(m, l);
      }

      *thetap = asind(n);
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int cscs2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int face, mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, costhe, eta, l, m, n, sinphi, sinthe, xi, zeta;
  const float tol = 1.0e-7;
  register int iphi, istat, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;

  float chi, chi2, chi2psi2, chi4, chipsi, psi, psi2, psi4, chi2co, psi2co,
        x0, xf, y0, yf;
  const float gstar  =  1.37484847732;
  const float mm     =  0.004869491981;
  const float gamma  = -0.13161671474;
  const float omega1 = -0.159596235474;
  const float d0  =  0.0759196200467;
  const float d1  = -0.0217762490699;
  const float c00 =  0.141189631152;
  const float c10 =  0.0809701286525;
  const float c01 = -0.281528535557;
  const float c11 =  0.15384112876;
  const float c20 = -0.178251207466;
  const float c02 =  0.106959469314;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != CSC) {
    if ((status = cscset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = cosphi;
      *yp = sinphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    sincosd(*thetap, &sinthe, &costhe);

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      l = costhe*(*xp);
      m = costhe*(*yp);
      n = sinthe;

      face = 0;
      zeta = n;
      if (l > zeta) {
        face = 1;
        zeta = l;
      }
      if (m > zeta) {
        face = 2;
        zeta = m;
      }
      if (-l > zeta) {
        face = 3;
        zeta = -l;
      }
      if (-m > zeta) {
        face = 4;
        zeta = -m;
      }
      if (-n > zeta) {
        face = 5;
        zeta = -n;
      }

      switch (face) {
      case 1:
        xi  =  m;
        eta =  n;
        x0  =  0.0;
        y0  =  0.0;
        break;
      case 2:
        xi  = -l;
        eta =  n;
        x0  =  2.0;
        y0  =  0.0;
        break;
      case 3:
        xi  = -m;
        eta =  n;
        x0  =  4.0;
        y0  =  0.0;
        break;
      case 4:
        xi  =  l;
        eta =  n;
        x0  =  6.0;
        y0  =  0.0;
        break;
      case 5:
        xi  =  m;
        eta =  l;
        x0  =  0.0;
        y0  = -2.0;
        break;
      default:
        /* face == 0 */
        xi  =  m;
        eta = -l;
        x0  =  0.0;
        y0  =  2.0;
        break;
      }

      chi =  xi/zeta;
      psi = eta/zeta;

      chi2 = chi*chi;
      psi2 = psi*psi;
      chi2co = 1.0 - chi2;
      psi2co = 1.0 - psi2;

      /* Avoid floating underflows. */
      chipsi = fabs(chi*psi);
      chi4   = (chi2 > 1.0e-16) ? chi2*chi2 : 0.0;
      psi4   = (psi2 > 1.0e-16) ? psi2*psi2 : 0.0;
      chi2psi2 = (chipsi > 1.0e-16) ? chi2*psi2 : 0.0;

      xf = chi*(chi2 + chi2co*(gstar + psi2*(gamma*chi2co + mm*chi2 +
                psi2co*(c00 + c10*chi2 + c01*psi2 + c11*chi2psi2 + c20*chi4 +
                c02*psi4)) + chi2*(omega1 - chi2co*(d0 + d1*chi2))));
       yf = psi*(psi2 + psi2co*(gstar + chi2*(gamma*psi2co + mm*psi2 +
                chi2co*(c00 + c10*psi2 + c01*chi2 + c11*chi2psi2 + c20*psi4 +
                c02*chi4)) + psi2*(omega1 - psi2co*(d0 + d1*psi2))));

      istat = 0;
      if (fabs(xf) > 1.0) {
        if (fabs(xf) > 1.0+tol) {
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("cscs2x");
        }
        xf = copysign(1.0, xf);
      }
      if (fabs(yf) > 1.0) {
        if (fabs(yf) > 1.0+tol) {
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("cscs2x");
        }
        yf = copysign(1.0, yf);
      }

      *xp = prj->w[0]*(xf + x0) - prj->x0;
      *yp = prj->w[0]*(yf + y0) - prj->y0;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   QSC: quadrilaterilized spherical cube projection.
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     QSC
*      prj->code    "QSC"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/4)
*      prj->w[1]    (4/pi)/r0
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to qscx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to qscs2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int qscset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = QSC;
  strcpy(prj->code, "QSC");

  strcpy(prj->name, "quadrilateralized spherical cube");
  prj->category  = QUADCUBE;
  prj->pvrange   = 0;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 45.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/45.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*PI/4.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0/prj->w[0];
  }

  prj->prjx2s = qscx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = qscs2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int qscx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int direct, face, mx, my, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosw, l, m, n, omega, sinw, tau, xf, yf, w, zeco, zeta;
  const double tol = 1.0e-12;
  register int ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != QSC) {
    if ((status = qscset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    xf = (*xp + prj->x0)*prj->w[1];

    phip = phi + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      *phip = xf;
      phip += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yf = (*yp + prj->y0)*prj->w[1];

    for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
      xf = *phip;

      /* Check bounds. */
      if (fabs(xf) <= 1.0) {
        if (fabs(yf) > 3.0) {
          *phip = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("qscx2s");
          continue;
        }
      } else {
        if (fabs(xf) > 7.0 || fabs(yf) > 1.0) {
          *phip = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("qscx2s");
          continue;
        }
      }

      /* Map negative faces to the other side. */
      if (xf < -1.0) xf += 8.0;

      /* Determine the face. */
      if (xf > 5.0) {
        face = 4;
        xf -= 6.0;
      } else if (xf > 3.0) {
        face = 3;
        xf -= 4.0;
      } else if (xf > 1.0) {
        face = 2;
        xf -= 2.0;
      } else if (yf > 1.0) {
        face = 0;
        yf -= 2.0;
      } else if (yf < -1.0) {
        face = 5;
        yf += 2.0;
      } else {
        face = 1;
      }

      direct = (fabs(xf) > fabs(yf));
      if (direct) {
        if (xf == 0.0) {
          omega = 0.0;
          tau  = 1.0;
          zeta = 1.0;
          zeco = 0.0;
        } else {
          w = 15.0*yf/xf;
          omega = sind(w)/(cosd(w) - SQRT2INV);
          tau  = 1.0 + omega*omega;
          zeco = xf*xf*(1.0 - 1.0/sqrt(1.0 + tau));
          zeta = 1.0 - zeco;
        }
      } else {
        if (yf == 0.0) {
          omega = 0.0;
          tau  = 1.0;
          zeta = 1.0;
          zeco = 0.0;
        } else {
          w = 15.0*xf/yf;
          sincosd(w, &sinw, &cosw);
          omega = sinw/(cosw - SQRT2INV);
          tau  = 1.0 + omega*omega;
          zeco = yf*yf*(1.0 - 1.0/sqrt(1.0 + tau));
          zeta = 1.0 - zeco;
        }
      }

      if (zeta < -1.0) {
        if (zeta < -1.0-tol) {
          *phip = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("qscx2s");
          continue;
        }

        zeta = -1.0;
        zeco =  2.0;
        w    =  0.0;
      } else {
        w = sqrt(zeco*(2.0-zeco)/tau);
      }

      switch (face) {
      case 1:
        l = zeta;
        if (direct) {
          m = w;
          if (xf < 0.0) m = -m;
          n = m*omega;
        } else {
          n = w;
          if (yf < 0.0) n = -n;
          m = n*omega;
        }
        break;
      case 2:
        m = zeta;
        if (direct) {
          l = w;
          if (xf > 0.0) l = -l;
          n = -l*omega;
        } else {
          n = w;
          if (yf < 0.0) n = -n;
          l = -n*omega;
        }
        break;
      case 3:
        l = -zeta;
        if (direct) {
          m = w;
          if (xf > 0.0) m = -m;
          n = -m*omega;
        } else {
          n = w;
          if (yf < 0.0) n = -n;
          m = -n*omega;
        }
        break;
      case 4:
        m = -zeta;
        if (direct) {
          l = w;
          if (xf < 0.0) l = -l;
          n = l*omega;
        } else {
          n = w;
          if (yf < 0.0) n = -n;
          l = n*omega;
        }
        break;
      case 5:
        n = -zeta;
        if (direct) {
          m = w;
          if (xf < 0.0) m = -m;
          l = m*omega;
        } else {
          l = w;
          if (yf < 0.0) l = -l;
          m = l*omega;
        }
        break;
      default:
        /* face == 0 */
        n = zeta;
        if (direct) {
          m = w;
          if (xf < 0.0) m = -m;
          l = -m*omega;
        } else {
          l = w;
          if (yf > 0.0) l = -l;
          m = -l*omega;
        }
        break;
      }

      if (l == 0.0 && m == 0.0) {
        *phip = 0.0;
      } else {
        *phip = atan2d(m, l);
      }

      *thetap = asind(n);
      *(statp++) = 0;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int qscs2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int face, mphi, mtheta, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double cosphi, costhe, eta, l, m, n, omega, p, sinphi, sinthe, t, tau, x0,
         xf, xi, y0, yf, zeco, zeta;
  const double tol = 1.0e-12;
  register int iphi, istat, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != QSC) {
    if ((status = qscset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    sincosd(*phip, &sinphi, &cosphi);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      *xp = cosphi;
      *yp = sinphi;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    sincosd(*thetap, &sinthe, &costhe);

    for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
      if (fabs(*thetap) == 90.0) {
        *xp = -prj->x0;
        *yp = copysign(2.0*prj->w[0], *thetap) - prj->y0;
        *(statp++) = 0;
        continue;
      }

      l = costhe*(*xp);
      m = costhe*(*yp);
      n = sinthe;

      face = 0;
      zeta = n;
      if (l > zeta) {
        face = 1;
        zeta = l;
      }
      if (m > zeta) {
        face = 2;
        zeta = m;
      }
      if (-l > zeta) {
        face = 3;
        zeta = -l;
      }
      if (-m > zeta) {
        face = 4;
        zeta = -m;
      }
      if (-n > zeta) {
        face = 5;
        zeta = -n;
      }

      zeco = 1.0 - zeta;

      switch (face) {
      case 1:
        xi  = m;
        eta = n;
        if (zeco < 1.0e-8) {
          /* Small angle formula. */
          t = (*thetap)*D2R;
          p = atan2(*yp, *xp);
          zeco = (p*p + t*t)/2.0;
        }
        x0 = 0.0;
        y0 = 0.0;
        break;
      case 2:
        xi  = -l;
        eta =  n;
        if (zeco < 1.0e-8) {
          /* Small angle formula. */
          t = (*thetap)*D2R;
          p = atan2(*yp, *xp) - PI/2.0;
          zeco = (p*p + t*t)/2.0;
        }
        x0 = 2.0;
        y0 = 0.0;
        break;
      case 3:
        xi  = -m;
        eta =  n;
        if (zeco < 1.0e-8) {
          /* Small angle formula. */
          t = (*thetap)*D2R;
          p = atan2(*yp, *xp);
          p -= copysign(PI, p);
          zeco = (p*p + t*t)/2.0;
        }
        x0 = 4.0;
        y0 = 0.0;
        break;
      case 4:
        xi  = l;
        eta = n;
        if (zeco < 1.0e-8) {
          /* Small angle formula. */
          t = (*thetap)*D2R;
          p = atan2(*yp, *xp) + PI/2.0;
          zeco = (p*p + t*t)/2.0;
        }
        x0 = 6;
        y0 = 0.0;
        break;
      case 5:
        xi  =  m;
        eta =  l;
        if (zeco < 1.0e-8) {
          /* Small angle formula. */
          t = (*thetap + 90.0)*D2R;
          zeco = t*t/2.0;
        }
        x0 =  0.0;
        y0 = -2;
         break;
      default:
        /* face == 0 */
        xi  =  m;
        eta = -l;
        if (zeco < 1.0e-8) {
          /* Small angle formula. */
          t = (90.0 - *thetap)*D2R;
          zeco = t*t/2.0;
        }
        x0 = 0.0;
        y0 = 2.0;
        break;
      }

      xf = 0.0;
      yf = 0.0;
      if (xi != 0.0 || eta != 0.0) {
        if (-xi > fabs(eta)) {
          omega = eta/xi;
          tau = 1.0 + omega*omega;
          xf  = -sqrt(zeco/(1.0 - 1.0/sqrt(1.0+tau)));
          yf  = (xf/15.0)*(atand(omega) - asind(omega/sqrt(tau+tau)));
        } else if (xi > fabs(eta)) {
          omega = eta/xi;
          tau = 1.0 + omega*omega;
          xf  =  sqrt(zeco/(1.0 - 1.0/sqrt(1.0+tau)));
          yf  = (xf/15.0)*(atand(omega) - asind(omega/sqrt(tau+tau)));
        } else if (-eta >= fabs(xi)) {
          omega = xi/eta;
          tau = 1.0 + omega*omega;
          yf  = -sqrt(zeco/(1.0 - 1.0/sqrt(1.0+tau)));
          xf  = (yf/15.0)*(atand(omega) - asind(omega/sqrt(tau+tau)));
        } else if (eta >= fabs(xi)) {
          omega = xi/eta;
          tau = 1.0 + omega*omega;
          yf  =  sqrt(zeco/(1.0 - 1.0/sqrt(1.0+tau)));
          xf  = (yf/15.0)*(atand(omega) - asind(omega/sqrt(tau+tau)));
        }
      }

      istat = 0;
      if (fabs(xf) > 1.0) {
        if (fabs(xf) > 1.0+tol) {
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("qscs2x");
        }
        xf = copysign(1.0, xf);
      }
      if (fabs(yf) > 1.0) {
        if (fabs(yf) > 1.0+tol) {
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_WORLD_SET("qscs2x");
        }
        yf = copysign(1.0, yf);
      }

      *xp = prj->w[0]*(xf + x0) - prj->x0;
      *yp = prj->w[0]*(yf + y0) - prj->y0;
      *(statp++) = istat;
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*============================================================================
*   HPX: HEALPix projection.
*
*   Given:
*      prj->pv[1]   H - the number of facets in longitude.
*      prj->pv[2]   K - the number of facets in latitude
*
*   Given and/or returned:
*      prj->r0      Reset to 180/pi if 0.
*      prj->phi0    Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*      prj->theta0  Reset to 0.0 if undefined.
*
*   Returned:
*      prj->flag     HPX
*      prj->code    "HPX"
*      prj->x0      Fiducial offset in x.
*      prj->y0      Fiducial offset in y.
*      prj->m       True if H is odd.
*      prj->n       True if K is odd.
*      prj->w[0]    r0*(pi/180)
*      prj->w[1]    (180/pi)/r0
*      prj->w[2]    (K-1)/K
*      prj->w[3]    90*K/H
*      prj->w[4]    (K+1)/2
*      prj->w[5]    90*(K-1)/H
*      prj->w[6]    180/H
*      prj->w[7]    H/360
*      prj->w[8]    r0*(pi/180)*(90*K/H)
*      prj->w[9]    r0*(pi/180)*(180/H)
*      prj->prjx2s  Pointer to hpxx2s().
*      prj->prjs2x  Pointer to hpxs2x().
*===========================================================================*/

int hpxset(prj)

struct prjprm *prj;

{
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;

  prj->flag = HPX;
  strcpy(prj->code, "HPX");

  if (undefined(prj->pv[1])) prj->pv[1] = 4.0;
  if (undefined(prj->pv[2])) prj->pv[2] = 3.0;

  strcpy(prj->name, "HEALPix");
  prj->category  = HEALPIX;
  prj->pvrange   = 102;
  prj->simplezen = 0;
  prj->equiareal = 1;
  prj->conformal = 0;
  prj->global    = 1;
  prj->divergent = 0;

  if (prj->pv[1] <= 0.0 || prj->pv[2] <= 0.0) {
    return PRJERR_BAD_PARAM_SET("hpxset");
  }

  prj->m = ((int)(prj->pv[1]+0.5))%2;
  prj->n = ((int)(prj->pv[2]+0.5))%2;

  if (prj->r0 == 0.0) {
    prj->r0 = R2D;
    prj->w[0] = 1.0;
    prj->w[1] = 1.0;
  } else {
    prj->w[0] = prj->r0*D2R;
    prj->w[1] = R2D/prj->r0;
  }

  prj->w[2] = (prj->pv[2] - 1.0) / prj->pv[2];
  prj->w[3] = 90.0 * prj->pv[2] / prj->pv[1];
  prj->w[4] = (prj->pv[2] + 1.0) / 2.0;
  prj->w[5] = 90.0 * (prj->pv[2] - 1.0) / prj->pv[1];
  prj->w[6] = 180.0 / prj->pv[1];
  prj->w[7] = prj->pv[1] / 360.0;
  prj->w[8] = prj->w[3] * prj->w[0];
  prj->w[9] = prj->w[6] * prj->w[0];

  prj->prjx2s = hpxx2s;
  prj->prjs2x = hpxs2x;

  return prjoff(prj, 0.0, 0.0);
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int hpxx2s(prj, nx, ny, sxy, spt, x, y, phi, theta, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nx, ny, sxy, spt;
const double x[], y[];
double phi[], theta[];
int stat[];

{
  int h, mx, my, offset, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double absy, s, sigma, t, yr;
  const double slim = prj->w[6] + 1e-12;
  const double ylim = prj->w[9] * prj->w[4];
  register int istat, ix, iy, *statp;
  register const double *xp, *yp;
  register double *phip, *thetap;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != HPX) {
    if ((status = hpxset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ny > 0) {
    mx = nx;
    my = ny;
  } else {
    mx = 1;
    my = 1;
    ny = nx;
  }

  status = 0;


  /* Do x dependence. */
  xp = x;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nx*spt;
  for (ix = 0; ix < nx; ix++, rowoff += spt, xp += sxy) {
    s = prj->w[1] * (*xp + prj->x0);
    /* x_c for K odd or theta > 0. */
    t = -180.0 + (2.0 * floor((*xp + 180.0) * prj->w[7]) + 1.0) * prj->w[6];
    t = prj->w[1] * (*xp - t);

    phip   = phi + rowoff;
    thetap = theta + rowoff;
    for (iy = 0; iy < my; iy++) {
      /* theta[] is used to hold (x - x_c). */
      *phip   = s;
      *thetap = t;
      phip   += rowlen;
      thetap += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do y dependence. */
  yp = y;
  phip   = phi;
  thetap = theta;
  statp  = stat;
  for (iy = 0; iy < ny; iy++, yp += sxy) {
    yr = prj->w[1]*(*yp + prj->y0);
    absy = fabs(yr);

    istat = 0;
    if (absy <= prj->w[5]) {
      /* Equatorial regime. */
      t = asind(yr/prj->w[3]);
      for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
        *thetap = t;
        *(statp++) = 0;
      }

    } else if (absy <= ylim) {
      /* Polar regime. */
      offset = (prj->n || *yp > 0.0) ? 0 : 1;

      sigma = prj->w[4] - absy / prj->w[6];

      if (sigma == 0.0) {
        s = 1e9;
        t = 90.0;

      } else {
        t = 1.0 - sigma*sigma/prj->pv[2];
        if (t < -1.0) {
          s = 0.0;
          t = 0.0;
          istat  = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("hpxx2s");
        } else {
          s = 1.0/sigma;
          t = asind(t);
        }
      }
      if (*yp < 0.0) t = -t;

      for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
        if (offset) {
          /* Offset the southern polar half-facets for even K. */
          h = (int)floor(*phip / prj->w[6]) + prj->m;
          if (h%2) {
            *thetap -= prj->w[6];
          } else {
            *thetap += prj->w[6];
          }
        }

        /* Recall that theta[] holds (x - x_c). */
        s *= *thetap;
        if (fabs(s) < slim) {
          if (s != 0.0) s -= *thetap;
          *phip += s;
          *thetap = t;
          *(statp++) = istat;
        } else {
          /* Out-of-bounds. */
          *phip   = 0.0;
          *thetap = 0.0;
          *(statp++) = 1;
          if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("hpxx2s");
        }
      }

    } else {
      /* Beyond latitude range. */
      for (ix = 0; ix < mx; ix++, phip += spt, thetap += spt) {
        *phip   = 0.0;
        *thetap = 0.0;
        *(statp++) = 1;
      }
      if (!status) status = PRJERR_BAD_PIX_SET("hpxx2s");
    }
  }

  return status;
}

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

int hpxs2x(prj, nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy, phi, theta, x, y, stat)

struct prjprm *prj;
int nphi, ntheta, spt, sxy;
const double phi[], theta[];
double x[], y[];
int stat[];

{
  int h, mphi, mtheta, offset, rowlen, rowoff, status;
  double abssin, eta, sigma, sinthe, t, xi;
  register int iphi, itheta, *statp;
  register const double *phip, *thetap;
  register double *xp, *yp;


  /* Initialize. */
  if (prj == 0x0) return PRJERR_NULL_POINTER;
  if (prj->flag != HPX) {
    if ((status = hpxset(prj))) return status;
  }

  if (ntheta > 0) {
    mphi   = nphi;
    mtheta = ntheta;
  } else {
    mphi   = 1;
    mtheta = 1;
    ntheta = nphi;
  }


  /* Do phi dependence. */
  phip = phi;
  rowoff = 0;
  rowlen = nphi*sxy;
  for (iphi = 0; iphi < nphi; iphi++, rowoff += sxy, phip += spt) {
    xi = prj->w[0] * (*phip) - prj->x0;

    /* phi_c for K odd or theta > 0. */
    t = -180.0 + (2.0*floor((*phip+180.0) * prj->w[7]) + 1.0) * prj->w[6];
    t = prj->w[0] * (*phip - t);

    xp = x + rowoff;
    yp = y + rowoff;
    for (itheta = 0; itheta < mtheta; itheta++) {
      /* y[] is used to hold (phi - phi_c). */
      *xp = xi;
      *yp = t;
      xp += rowlen;
      yp += rowlen;
    }
  }


  /* Do theta dependence. */
  thetap = theta;
  xp = x;
  yp = y;
  statp = stat;
  for (itheta = 0; itheta < ntheta; itheta++, thetap += spt) {
    sinthe = sind(*thetap);
    abssin = fabs(sinthe);

    if (abssin <= prj->w[2]) {
      /* Equatorial regime. */
      eta = prj->w[8] * sinthe - prj->y0;
      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        *yp = eta;
        *(statp++) = 0;
      }

    } else {
      /* Polar regime. */
      offset = (prj->n || *thetap > 0.0) ? 0 : 1;

      sigma = sqrt(prj->pv[2]*(1.0 - abssin));
      xi = sigma - 1.0;

      eta = prj->w[9] * (prj->w[4] - sigma);
      if (*thetap < 0) eta = -eta;
      eta -= prj->y0;

      for (iphi = 0; iphi < mphi; iphi++, xp += sxy, yp += sxy) {
        if (offset) {
          /* Offset the southern polar half-facets for even K. */
          h = (int)floor((*xp + prj->x0) / prj->w[9]) + prj->m;
          if (h%2) {
            *yp -= prj->w[9];
          } else {
            *yp += prj->w[9];
          }
        }

        /* Recall that y[] holds (phi - phi_c). */
        *xp += *yp * xi;
        *yp = eta;
        *(statp++) = 0;

        /* Put the phi = 180 meridian in the expected place. */
        if (180.0 < *xp) *xp = 360.0 - *xp;
      }
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

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